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Unravelling the ZnO-NPs mechanistic pathway: Cellular changes and altered morphology in the gastrointestinal tract of the earthworm Eisenia andrei.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2020 Jun 15; 196:110532.EE

Abstract

A major uptake route of nanoparticles (NPs) occurs via the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. When GI tract cells are exposed, NPs cytotoxic effects are observed that subsequently adversely affect the GI tract morphology and have consequences for the whole organism. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanism of effects caused by ZnO-NPs compared to Zn ions on the earthworm Eisenia andrei. The following aspects of individually exposed earthworms were investigated: 1) qualitative structural alterations in the gut epithelium and chloragogen cells of the GI tract, 2) quantitative changes within chloragogen tissues after 48 h of exposure (using morphometric analysis), and 3) the ADP/ATP ratio in homogenized tissue of the whole organism after 21 days of exposure to contaminated soil (contamination phase) followed by 14 days of elimination in clean soil (decontamination phase) to identify possible recovery. Both ZnO-NPs and Zn ions adversely affect the gut epithelium and chloragogen tissue of earthworms after 48 h of exposure to contaminated soil. Morphometric measurements revealed that the proportions of debris vesicles in the chloragocytes were significantly lower in worms exposed to ZnO-NPs than in worms exposed to Zn ions. Moreover, numerous spherite granules were observed in the chloragocytes of ionic Zn-treated worms, but not the ZnO-NPs-treated worms, suggesting differential regulation of these Zn forms. The Zn cytotoxic effect was not reflected in ADP/ATP ratio measurements. Our study provides new insights into nano-specific effects that are distinctive from ion regulation inside the GI tract and furthers our understanding of the relationship between effects at the cellular and whole-body levels.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387, Kraków, Poland. Electronic address: zuza.swiatek@doctoral.uj.edu.pl.Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387, Kraków, Poland. Electronic address: olga.woznicka@uj.edu.pl.Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Mickiewicza 33, 31-120, Kraków, Poland. Electronic address: bednarska@iop.krakow.pl.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32247243

Citation

Świątek, Zuzanna M., et al. "Unravelling the ZnO-NPs Mechanistic Pathway: Cellular Changes and Altered Morphology in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Earthworm Eisenia Andrei." Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 196, 2020, p. 110532.
Świątek ZM, Woźnicka O, Bednarska AJ. Unravelling the ZnO-NPs mechanistic pathway: Cellular changes and altered morphology in the gastrointestinal tract of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2020;196:110532.
Świątek, Z. M., Woźnicka, O., & Bednarska, A. J. (2020). Unravelling the ZnO-NPs mechanistic pathway: Cellular changes and altered morphology in the gastrointestinal tract of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 196, 110532. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110532
Świątek ZM, Woźnicka O, Bednarska AJ. Unravelling the ZnO-NPs Mechanistic Pathway: Cellular Changes and Altered Morphology in the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Earthworm Eisenia Andrei. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2020 Jun 15;196:110532. PubMed PMID: 32247243.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Unravelling the ZnO-NPs mechanistic pathway: Cellular changes and altered morphology in the gastrointestinal tract of the earthworm Eisenia andrei. AU - Świątek,Zuzanna M, AU - Woźnicka,Olga, AU - Bednarska,Agnieszka J, Y1 - 2020/04/01/ PY - 2019/12/22/received PY - 2020/03/19/revised PY - 2020/03/21/accepted PY - 2020/4/5/pubmed PY - 2020/7/7/medline PY - 2020/4/5/entrez KW - Chloragogen tissue KW - Gut epithelium KW - Morphology KW - Nanoparticles KW - Zinc SP - 110532 EP - 110532 JF - Ecotoxicology and environmental safety JO - Ecotoxicol Environ Saf VL - 196 N2 - A major uptake route of nanoparticles (NPs) occurs via the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. When GI tract cells are exposed, NPs cytotoxic effects are observed that subsequently adversely affect the GI tract morphology and have consequences for the whole organism. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanism of effects caused by ZnO-NPs compared to Zn ions on the earthworm Eisenia andrei. The following aspects of individually exposed earthworms were investigated: 1) qualitative structural alterations in the gut epithelium and chloragogen cells of the GI tract, 2) quantitative changes within chloragogen tissues after 48 h of exposure (using morphometric analysis), and 3) the ADP/ATP ratio in homogenized tissue of the whole organism after 21 days of exposure to contaminated soil (contamination phase) followed by 14 days of elimination in clean soil (decontamination phase) to identify possible recovery. Both ZnO-NPs and Zn ions adversely affect the gut epithelium and chloragogen tissue of earthworms after 48 h of exposure to contaminated soil. Morphometric measurements revealed that the proportions of debris vesicles in the chloragocytes were significantly lower in worms exposed to ZnO-NPs than in worms exposed to Zn ions. Moreover, numerous spherite granules were observed in the chloragocytes of ionic Zn-treated worms, but not the ZnO-NPs-treated worms, suggesting differential regulation of these Zn forms. The Zn cytotoxic effect was not reflected in ADP/ATP ratio measurements. Our study provides new insights into nano-specific effects that are distinctive from ion regulation inside the GI tract and furthers our understanding of the relationship between effects at the cellular and whole-body levels. SN - 1090-2414 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32247243/Unravelling_the_ZnO_NPs_mechanistic_pathway:_Cellular_changes_and_altered_morphology_in_the_gastrointestinal_tract_of_the_earthworm_Eisenia_andrei_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0147-6513(20)30371-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -