Pathomorphological characteristics and immunohistochemical features of placentae from hiv-positive pregnant women with fetal growth retardation.Wiad Lek. 2020; 73(2):215-219.WL
The aim: To study the pathomorphological characteristics and immunohistochemical features of placentae from human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV-positive) pregnant women with FGR.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Materials and methods: The study material was 32 placentae, including 12 placentae from HIV-positive pregnant women with FGR (study group), 10 placentae from HIVpositivepregnant women without FGR (comparison group) and 10 placentae from HIV-negative women with physiological pregnancy (control group). An immunohistochemical study was performed using monoclonal antibodies (MCA) against CD31+ and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
Results: Pathomorphologic changes of the placentae from HIV-positive pregnant women with FGR were characterized by edema in the umbilical cord tissue, partial dissection of the vascular wall fibers, dysmucoidosis; intracellular edema and hemorrhage in the fetal membrane tissues. In the placentae tissue it was found marked manifestations of degenerative changes in the form of the areas of fibrinoid necrosis, pronounced manifestations of dysmucoidosis, vacuolation of the villi stroma, an increase in the number of avascular villi and immature villi of small caliber with the phenomena of syncytiotrophoblast focal hyperplasia. An immunohistochemical study with MCA against CD31+ revealed the expression (optical density) of the vascular endothelial cells up to 2 points, and the expression level up to 3 points in the isolated areas with the appearance of the expression on the villi surface and in their thickness. During immunohistochemical studies with VEGF the expression level and its optical density increased up to 2-3 points, in some areas the expression of deposits were detected on the villi surface, in their thickness and in the intervillous space.
Conclusions: The comparative pathomorphological and immunohistochemical study of the placentae demonstrated more significant changes in the group of HIV-positive pregnant women with FGR. In the placentae of HIV-positive pregnant women with FGR immunohistochemical examinations revealed a high level of CD31+ and VEGF expression.