Effect of Experimental Parameters on the Extraction of Grape Seed Oil Obtained by Low Pressure and Supercritical Fluid Extraction.Molecules. 2020 Apr 02; 25(7)M
Grape seeds are an important byproduct from the grape process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of experimental parameters (temperature and time of pretreatment with ultrasound) to obtain grape seed oil using low pressure (Soxhlet-Sox and Bligh Dyer-BD) and high pressure (supercritical carbon dioxide-SFE) methods. The best condition for pretreatment of samples was 30 min of sonication at 30 °C before extraction by Sox or BD. Ultrasound pretreatment was efficient to increase oil extraction yield by 32.10 (Sox), 20.31 (BD) and 12.54% (SFE), depending on the extraction method used as well as, and certainly influenced the total phenolic concentration in 311 (Sox), 234 (BD), and 184 (SFE)%. Ten fatty acids were identified in the oils, the major ones being 18:2ω-6cis (linoleic 52.39%-63.12%), 16:0 (palmitic 20.22%-26.80%) and 18:0 (stearic 8.52%-13.68%). The highest epicatechin concentration was identified in the BD sample: 30-30 (150.49 ± 5.98mg/kg), which presented a concentration of ≥3 times compared to the control (56.68 ± 1.81mg/kg). Ultrasound pretreatment also contributed positively (56% and 99% increase) in the α-tocopherol content of the SFE: 30-30 and BD: 30-30 samples, respectively. The results indicate that the ultrasound pretreatment is a suitable technology to improve the quality of the oil from the grape seed.