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Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2020 Aug; 277(8):2251-2261.EA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the occurrence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection.

METHODS

Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection were recruited from 12 European hospitals. The following epidemiological and clinical outcomes have been studied: age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, and general and otolaryngological symptoms. Patients completed olfactory and gustatory questionnaires based on the smell and taste component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and the short version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders-Negative Statements (sQOD-NS).

RESULTS

A total of 417 mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients completed the study (263 females). The most prevalent general symptoms consisted of cough, myalgia, and loss of appetite. Face pain and nasal obstruction were the most disease-related otolaryngological symptoms. 85.6% and 88.0% of patients reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions, respectively. There was a significant association between both disorders (p < 0.001). Olfactory dysfunction (OD) appeared before the other symptoms in 11.8% of cases. The sQO-NS scores were significantly lower in patients with anosmia compared with normosmic or hyposmic individuals (p = 0.001). Among the 18.2% of patients without nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea, 79.7% were hyposmic or anosmic. The early olfactory recovery rate was 44.0%. Females were significantly more affected by olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions than males (p = 0.001).

CONCLUSION

Olfactory and gustatory disorders are prevalent symptoms in European COVID-19 patients, who may not have nasal symptoms. The sudden anosmia or ageusia need to be recognized by the international scientific community as important symptoms of the COVID-19 infection.

Authors+Show Affiliations

COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Jerome.Lechien@umons.ac.be. Department of Human Anatomy and Experimental Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, UMONS Research Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, University of Mons (UMons), Mons, Belgium. Jerome.Lechien@umons.ac.be. Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Foch Hospital, School of Medicine, UFR Simone Veil, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (Paris Saclay University), Paris, France. Jerome.Lechien@umons.ac.be. Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, CHU de Bruxelles, CHU Saint-Pierre, School of Medicine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. Jerome.Lechien@umons.ac.be.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hospital Universitario Donostia, San Sebastian, Spain.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, CHU Saint-Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, CHU de Bruxelles, CHU Saint-Pierre, School of Medicine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, CHU de Bruxelles, CHU Saint-Pierre, School of Medicine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, CHU de Bruxelles, CHU Saint-Pierre, School of Medicine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, CHU de Bruxelles, CHU Saint-Pierre, School of Medicine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.Department of Neurology, EpiCURA Hospital, Ath, Belgium.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Foch Hospital, School of Medicine, UFR Simone Veil, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (Paris Saclay University), Paris, France.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Foch Hospital, School of Medicine, UFR Simone Veil, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (Paris Saclay University), Paris, France.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Foch Hospital, School of Medicine, UFR Simone Veil, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (Paris Saclay University), Paris, France.Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Foch Hospital, School of Medicine, UFR Simone Veil, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (Paris Saclay University), Paris, France.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hospital Quironsalud Valencia, Valencia, Spain.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Department of Otolaryngology-Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Division of Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Mental and Physical Health and Preventive Medicine, University of L. Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Division of Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Mental and Physical Health and Preventive Medicine, University of L. Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Morgagni Pierantoni Hospital, Forli, Italy.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, EpiCURA Hospital, Baudour, Belgium.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, CHU Ambroise Paré, Mons, Belgium.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, CHU Ambroise Paré, Mons, Belgium.Division of Infectious Disease, CHU Ambroise-Paré, Mons, Belgium.Department of Human Anatomy and Experimental Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, UMONS Research Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, University of Mons (UMons), Mons, Belgium.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Rhinology-Olfactology Unit, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Geneva University Hospitals (HUG), Geneva, Switzerland.Department of Neuroradiology, Université Paris-Descartes-Sorbonne-Paris-Cité, IMABRAIN-INSERM-UMR1266, DHU-Neurovasc, Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Paris, France. Department of Radiology, APHP, Hôpitaux R. Poincaré-Ambroise Paré, DMU Smart Imaging, GH Université Paris-Saclay, U 1179 UVSQ/Paris-Saclay, Paris, France.Department of Radiology, APHP, Hôpitaux R. Poincaré-Ambroise Paré, DMU Smart Imaging, GH Université Paris-Saclay, U 1179 UVSQ/Paris-Saclay, Paris, France.Department of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, UMONS Research Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, University of Mons (UMons), Mons, Belgium.Department of Neuroscience, Audiology Unit, Padova University, Treviso, Italy.Department of Neuroscience, Audiology Unit, Padova University, Treviso, Italy.Department of Metabolic and Molecular Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, UMONS Research Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, University of Mons (UMons), Mons, Belgium.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, APHM, Aix Marseille University, La Conception University Hospital, Marseille, France.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.COVID-19 Task Force of the Young-Otolaryngologists of the International Federations of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies (YO-IFOS), Paris, France. Department of Human Anatomy and Experimental Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, UMONS Research Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, University of Mons (UMons), Mons, Belgium. Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, CHU de Bruxelles, CHU Saint-Pierre, School of Medicine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, EpiCURA Hospital, Baudour, Belgium.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32253535

Citation

Lechien, Jerome R., et al. "Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunctions as a Clinical Presentation of Mild-to-moderate Forms of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): a Multicenter European Study." European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology : Official Journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : Affiliated With the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 277, no. 8, 2020, pp. 2251-2261.
Lechien JR, Chiesa-Estomba CM, De Siati DR, et al. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2020;277(8):2251-2261.
Lechien, J. R., Chiesa-Estomba, C. M., De Siati, D. R., Horoi, M., Le Bon, S. D., Rodriguez, A., Dequanter, D., Blecic, S., El Afia, F., Distinguin, L., Chekkoury-Idrissi, Y., Hans, S., Delgado, I. L., Calvo-Henriquez, C., Lavigne, P., Falanga, C., Barillari, M. R., Cammaroto, G., Khalife, M., ... Saussez, S. (2020). Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study. European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology : Official Journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : Affiliated With the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, 277(8), 2251-2261. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-05965-1
Lechien JR, et al. Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunctions as a Clinical Presentation of Mild-to-moderate Forms of the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): a Multicenter European Study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2020;277(8):2251-2261. PubMed PMID: 32253535.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study. AU - Lechien,Jerome R, AU - Chiesa-Estomba,Carlos M, AU - De Siati,Daniele R, AU - Horoi,Mihaela, AU - Le Bon,Serge D, AU - Rodriguez,Alexandra, AU - Dequanter,Didier, AU - Blecic,Serge, AU - El Afia,Fahd, AU - Distinguin,Lea, AU - Chekkoury-Idrissi,Younes, AU - Hans,Stéphane, AU - Delgado,Irene Lopez, AU - Calvo-Henriquez,Christian, AU - Lavigne,Philippe, AU - Falanga,Chiara, AU - Barillari,Maria Rosaria, AU - Cammaroto,Giovanni, AU - Khalife,Mohamad, AU - Leich,Pierre, AU - Souchay,Christel, AU - Rossi,Camelia, AU - Journe,Fabrice, AU - Hsieh,Julien, AU - Edjlali,Myriam, AU - Carlier,Robert, AU - Ris,Laurence, AU - Lovato,Andrea, AU - De Filippis,Cosimo, AU - Coppee,Frederique, AU - Fakhry,Nicolas, AU - Ayad,Tareck, AU - Saussez,Sven, Y1 - 2020/04/06/ PY - 2020/03/30/received PY - 2020/04/02/accepted PY - 2020/4/8/pubmed PY - 2020/7/15/medline PY - 2020/4/8/entrez KW - Anosmia KW - COVID KW - COVID-19 KW - Coronavirus KW - Dysgeusia KW - ENT KW - Gustatory KW - Hyposmia KW - Infection KW - Loss KW - Olfaction KW - Olfactory KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - Smell KW - Taste SP - 2251 EP - 2261 JF - European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery JO - Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol VL - 277 IS - 8 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection were recruited from 12 European hospitals. The following epidemiological and clinical outcomes have been studied: age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, and general and otolaryngological symptoms. Patients completed olfactory and gustatory questionnaires based on the smell and taste component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and the short version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders-Negative Statements (sQOD-NS). RESULTS: A total of 417 mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients completed the study (263 females). The most prevalent general symptoms consisted of cough, myalgia, and loss of appetite. Face pain and nasal obstruction were the most disease-related otolaryngological symptoms. 85.6% and 88.0% of patients reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions, respectively. There was a significant association between both disorders (p < 0.001). Olfactory dysfunction (OD) appeared before the other symptoms in 11.8% of cases. The sQO-NS scores were significantly lower in patients with anosmia compared with normosmic or hyposmic individuals (p = 0.001). Among the 18.2% of patients without nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea, 79.7% were hyposmic or anosmic. The early olfactory recovery rate was 44.0%. Females were significantly more affected by olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions than males (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Olfactory and gustatory disorders are prevalent symptoms in European COVID-19 patients, who may not have nasal symptoms. The sudden anosmia or ageusia need to be recognized by the international scientific community as important symptoms of the COVID-19 infection. SN - 1434-4726 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32253535/full_citation L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-05965-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -