Nanoformulation of Biogenic Cefotaxime-Conjugated-Silver Nanoparticles for Enhanced Antibacterial Efficacy Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Anticancer Studies.Int J Nanomedicine. 2020; 15:1889-1901.IJ
Due to the expanded bacterial genetic tolerance to antibiotics through different mechanisms, infectious diseases of MDR bacteria are difficult for treatment. Consequently, we synthesized drug conjugated nanoparticles to dissolve this problem. Moreover, the present study aims to display the cell death status treated with cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs and also, apoptosis pathways of human RPE-1 normal cells and human MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Here, we demonstrate the possibility to synthesize AgNPs and conjugate them with cefotaxime to survey the probability of cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs as an antimicrobial agent against cefotaxime-resistant strains E. coli and MRSA.
TEM showed the size of AgNPs, CS-AgNPs and cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs ranged from 7.42 to 18.3 nm, 8.05-23.89 nm and 8.48-25.3 nm, respectively, with a spherical shape. The cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs enhanced the high antimicrobial properties compared to AgNPs or pure antibiotic. The MIC of Cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs ranged from 3 µg/mL to 8 µg/mL against tested E. coli and MRSA bacteria. Consequently, the highest reduction in the MIC of cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs was noted against tested strains ranging from 22% to 96%. Comparing cefotaime-CS-AgNPs to AgNPs we showed that cefotaime-CS-AgNPs have no cytotoxic effect on normal cells at even 12 µg/mL for 24 hrs. The IC50 for the AgNPs and cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs was 12 µg/mL for human RPE-1 normal cells and human MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The pro-apoptotic genes p53, p21, and Bax of cancer cell lines significantly upregulated followed by downregulated by anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 after 48 hrs at 24 µg/mL, and this concentration represents the most effective dose.
Results enhanced the conjugating utility in old unresponsive cefotaxime to AgNPs to restore its efficiency against previous strains and demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of cefotaxime-CS-AgNPs. Moreover, this research gives remarkable insights for designing nanoscale delivery and curative systems that have a pronounced cytotoxic activity on cancer cells and are safe to normal cells.