Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Fish Husbandry Practices and Water Quality in Central Kenya: Potential Risk Factors for Fish Mortality and Infectious Diseases.
Vet Med Int. 2020; 2020:6839354.VM

Abstract

Fish mortality has an enormous impact on the aquaculture industry by reducing fish production and slowing industrial growth. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kirinyaga County, Central Kenya, to evaluate potential risks of fish mortality and disease transmission and suitability of pond water for rearing fish. A semistructured questionnaire that focused on general information, management practices, and disease history was administered to 92 small-scale fish farmers. Parasitological examination of fish sampled from selected farms (farms that were reporting mortality at the time of sampling) was done by following the standard procedure. Water quality parameters for 33 ponds were evaluated in situ (recorded on pond site) and ex situ (analysed at the laboratory) following the standard methods. The risks were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on univariate regression analysis. Prevalent fish husbandry practices that were found to be associated with fish mortality and acquisition of pathogens in the study area were the use of raw livestock manure (0R = 1.500), high fish stocking density (0R = 1.168), and feeding fish on homemade rations (0R = 1.128). Parasitological investigation found infestation with Diplostomum spp., Dactylogyrus spp., Clinostomum spp., and Piscicola leeches. Water temperature and pH were found fit for rearing fish. Of the 33 fishpond water samples tested, 1 (3%) and 6 (18%) exceeded the recommended limits of <100 mg/L and <0.2 mg/L of nitrate and nitrite, respectively. Of the 29 fishpond water tested, 15 (59%) exceeded the recommended limits of <100 mg/L of total ammonia. The findings show that the use of raw livestock manure, high fish stocking density, high nitrates and nitrites, and high ammonia levels in fishponds are potential risk factors for fish mortality and acquisition of infectious pathogens in a pond environment in a rural setup, in Central Kenya. There is a need to address the above factors in small-scale farming practices to minimize fish loss and also to prevent the occurrence and spread of infectious pathogens.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of Nairobi, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, P.O. Box 29053-00625, Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya. Sokoine University of Agriculture, College of Veterinary and Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 3000, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania.University of Nairobi, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, P.O. Box 29053-00625, Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya.University of Nairobi, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, P.O. Box 29053-00625, Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya.University of Nairobi, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, P.O. Box 29053-00625, Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya. Sokoine University of Agriculture, College of Veterinary and Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 3000, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania.University of Nairobi, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, P.O. Box 29053-00625, Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya.University of Nairobi, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, P.O. Box 29053-00625, Kangemi, Nairobi, Kenya.Sokoine University of Agriculture, College of Veterinary and Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 3000, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32257096

Citation

Wanja, Daniel W., et al. "Fish Husbandry Practices and Water Quality in Central Kenya: Potential Risk Factors for Fish Mortality and Infectious Diseases." Veterinary Medicine International, vol. 2020, 2020, p. 6839354.
Wanja DW, Mbuthia PG, Waruiru RM, et al. Fish Husbandry Practices and Water Quality in Central Kenya: Potential Risk Factors for Fish Mortality and Infectious Diseases. Vet Med Int. 2020;2020:6839354.
Wanja, D. W., Mbuthia, P. G., Waruiru, R. M., Mwadime, J. M., Bebora, L. C., Nyaga, P. N., & Ngowi, H. A. (2020). Fish Husbandry Practices and Water Quality in Central Kenya: Potential Risk Factors for Fish Mortality and Infectious Diseases. Veterinary Medicine International, 2020, 6839354. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/6839354
Wanja DW, et al. Fish Husbandry Practices and Water Quality in Central Kenya: Potential Risk Factors for Fish Mortality and Infectious Diseases. Vet Med Int. 2020;2020:6839354. PubMed PMID: 32257096.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fish Husbandry Practices and Water Quality in Central Kenya: Potential Risk Factors for Fish Mortality and Infectious Diseases. AU - Wanja,Daniel W, AU - Mbuthia,Paul G, AU - Waruiru,Robert M, AU - Mwadime,Janet M, AU - Bebora,Lilly C, AU - Nyaga,Philip N, AU - Ngowi,Helena A, Y1 - 2020/03/19/ PY - 2019/07/26/received PY - 2020/01/29/revised PY - 2020/02/20/accepted PY - 2020/4/8/entrez PY - 2020/4/8/pubmed PY - 2020/4/8/medline SP - 6839354 EP - 6839354 JF - Veterinary medicine international JO - Vet Med Int VL - 2020 N2 - Fish mortality has an enormous impact on the aquaculture industry by reducing fish production and slowing industrial growth. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kirinyaga County, Central Kenya, to evaluate potential risks of fish mortality and disease transmission and suitability of pond water for rearing fish. A semistructured questionnaire that focused on general information, management practices, and disease history was administered to 92 small-scale fish farmers. Parasitological examination of fish sampled from selected farms (farms that were reporting mortality at the time of sampling) was done by following the standard procedure. Water quality parameters for 33 ponds were evaluated in situ (recorded on pond site) and ex situ (analysed at the laboratory) following the standard methods. The risks were assessed by adjusted odds ratio based on univariate regression analysis. Prevalent fish husbandry practices that were found to be associated with fish mortality and acquisition of pathogens in the study area were the use of raw livestock manure (0R = 1.500), high fish stocking density (0R = 1.168), and feeding fish on homemade rations (0R = 1.128). Parasitological investigation found infestation with Diplostomum spp., Dactylogyrus spp., Clinostomum spp., and Piscicola leeches. Water temperature and pH were found fit for rearing fish. Of the 33 fishpond water samples tested, 1 (3%) and 6 (18%) exceeded the recommended limits of <100 mg/L and <0.2 mg/L of nitrate and nitrite, respectively. Of the 29 fishpond water tested, 15 (59%) exceeded the recommended limits of <100 mg/L of total ammonia. The findings show that the use of raw livestock manure, high fish stocking density, high nitrates and nitrites, and high ammonia levels in fishponds are potential risk factors for fish mortality and acquisition of infectious pathogens in a pond environment in a rural setup, in Central Kenya. There is a need to address the above factors in small-scale farming practices to minimize fish loss and also to prevent the occurrence and spread of infectious pathogens. SN - 2090-8113 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32257096/Fish_Husbandry_Practices_and_Water_Quality_in_Central_Kenya:_Potential_Risk_Factors_for_Fish_Mortality_and_Infectious_Diseases L2 - https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/6839354 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
Try the Free App:
Prime PubMed app for iOS iPhone iPad
Prime PubMed app for Android
Prime PubMed is provided
free to individuals by:
Unbound Medicine.