Indocyanine Green-Enhanced Fluorescence in Laparoscopic Duodenum-Preserving Pancreatic Head Resection: Technique with Video.Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Oct; 27(10):3926-3927.AS
In 1972, Beger et al.1 first described duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) for patients with severe chronic pancreatitis. Then DPPHR also was proved capable of providing comparable long-term oncologic outcomes in the setting of benign or low-grade malignant tumors.2 As an organ-preserving procedure, DPPHR preserves the integrity of the digestive tract and improves the patient's quality of life compared with pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD),3 although DPPHR is more technically challenging, especially in protecting the bile duct and the pancreaticoduodenal vascular arch.4,5 The indocyanine green (ICG)-enhanced fluorescence imaging system in laparoscopic surgery can identify the biliary and vascular anatomy clearly to ensure a safe cholecystectomy and an adequate vascular supply for colectomy or nephrectomy.6 Nevertheless, to date, no report has described ICG-enhanced fluorescence in laparoscopic duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (LDPPHR). This article describes the technique of LDPPHR using a video of a real-time ICG fluorescence imaging system.
A 29-year-old woman received a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and an inflammatory mass in the head of the pancreas. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed atrophy of the pancreas, dilation of the main pancreatic duct, and heterogeneous enhancement of the pancreatic head parenchyma (Fig. 1). Her other preoperative examination results were normal except for high blood sugar. To avoid an extended PD for this young patient, LDPPHR was performed. The patient was placed in supine position with her two legs apart. The observing trocar (10 mm) was located at the inferior umbilicus. Four trocars (two 5-mm trocars and two 12-mm trocars) were distributed symmetrically at the midclavicular line and anterior axillary line. Another 5-mm trocar located at the subxiphoid was used for traction of the stomach with a rubber band. Before the operation, ICG (5 mg) was injected intravenously from the elbow vein. The gastrocolic ligament was opened, and the hepatic flexure of the colon was taken down to explore the head of the pancreas without making a Kocher's maneuver. After hanging of the distal stomach with a rubber band, both the right gastroepiploic vein and Henle's trunk were dissected. The number 8a lymph node was dissected for intraoperative rapid frozen pathology. A post-pancreatic neck tunnel was built, and the pancreatic neck was transected with an ultrasonic scalpel. The main pancreatic duct was identified and transected with cold scissors. The superior mesenteric vein (SMV) was hung with another rubber band and retracted to the left. The uncinate process of the pancreas was retracted to the right, and subcapsular dissection was performed, with particular attention paid to protection of the anterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (AIPDA), the posterior inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (PIPDA), and their branches that go into the duodenum. Then the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) was identified, and the anterosuperior pancreatic duodenal artery (ASPDA) was dissected. The upper part of the pancreatic head was separated to expose the common bile duct (CBD) with the help of real-time ICG fluorescence imaging (Fig. 2). The pancreas was dissected from the left edge of the duodenum and the right and ventral edges of the CBD. The posterosuperior pancreatic duodenal artery (PSPDA) was identified at the dorsal edge of the CBD. The PSPDA and its branches going into the distal CBD as well as the ampulla of Vater were carefully preserved. The proximal side of the main and accessory pancreatic duct was identified and sutured. Pancreatic anastomosis was performed using the technique of Bing's anastomosis.7 Fig. 1 Enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan showing atrophy of the pancreas, dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, and heterogeneous enhancement of the pancreatic head parenchyma Fig. 2 The common bile duct was separated and exposed from the head to the tail by the assistance of the real-time indocyanine green (ICG)-enhanced fluorescence imaging system RESULTS: The operation time was 251 min, and the estimated blood loss was 150 ml. The postoperative course was uneventful, with a hospital stay of 13 days. From February 2019 to November 2019, LDPPHR was used by the authors to manage 24 cases, including chronic pancreatitis (6 cases), pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous tumors (6 cases), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (4 cases), pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors (4 cases), serous cystadenoma (3 cases), and mucinous cystadenoma (1 case).
Indocyanine green-enhanced fluorescence in laparoscopic duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection was safe and may offer a benefit for maintaining the integrity of the biliary system.