Multiple reversible encephalitic attacks: a rare manifestation of neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease.BMC Neurol. 2020 Apr 08; 20(1):125.BN
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare neurodegenerative condition characterized by the loss of neurons and the presence of eosinophilic nuclear inclusions in the central and peripheral nervous system, skin and visceral organs. In this paper, we present a case of NIID with recurrent encephalitic attacks that remained stable and nonprogressive for seven years; no such case has previously been reported.
A 63-year-old female was hospitalized due to light-headedness, vomiting, unstable gait and cognitive impairment. Seven years prior, she had experienced an episode of light-headedness, central facial paralysis, unstable gait, aphasia, nausea, vomiting and loss of consciousness. She regained consciousness within 12 h, and her other symptoms were completely resolved within one week. During the present hospitalization, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination detected high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the bilateral frontal grey matter-white matter junction. We reviewed the patient's previous MRI results and found that she had also had high signal intensity on DWI of the bilateral frontal grey matter-white matter junction seven years prior. In the intervening seven years, the high signal intensity in the frontal lobes had spread along the grey matter-white matter junction, but the deep white matter remained unaffected. Skin biopsy was performed, and intranuclear inclusions were found in adipocytes, fibroblasts and sweat gland cells. GGC repeat expansions in the NOTCH2NLC (Notch 2 N-terminal like C) gene confirmed the diagnosis of NIID. She received supportive treatment such as nutrition support therapy and vitamin B and C supplementation, as well as symptomatic treatment during hospitalization. The patient's symptoms were completely relieved within one week.
This is a detailed report of a case of NIID with multiple reversible encephalitic attacks, diagnosed by clinical symptoms, intranuclear inclusions, characteristic DWI signals, and genetic tests.