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Evaluation of personal protection afforded by repellent-treated sandals against mosquito bites in south-eastern Tanzania.
Malar J. 2020 Apr 08; 19(1):148.MJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Outdoor and early evening mosquito biting needs to be addressed if malaria elimination is to be achieved. While indoor-targeted interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying, remain essential, complementary approaches that tackle persisting outdoor transmission are urgently required to maximize the impact. Major malaria vectors principally bite human hosts around the feet and ankles. Consequently, this study investigated whether sandals treated with efficacious spatial repellents can protect against outdoor biting mosquitoes.

METHODOLOGY

Sandals affixed with hessian bands measuring 48 cm2 treated with 0.06 g, 0.10 g and 0.15 g of transfluthrin were tested in large cage semi-field and full field experiments. Sandals affixed with hessian bands measuring 240 cm2 and treated with 0.10 g and 0.15 g of transfluthrin were also tested semi field experiments. Human landing catches (HLC) were used to assess reduction in biting exposure by comparing proportions of mosquitoes landing on volunteers wearing treated and untreated sandals. Sandals were tested against insectary reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in semi-field experiments and against wild mosquito species in rural Tanzania.

RESULTS

In semi-field tests, sandals fitted with hessian bands measuring 48 cm2 and treated with 0.15 g, 0.10 g and 0.06 g transfluthrin reduced mosquito landings by 45.9%, (95% confidence interval (C.I.) 28-59%), 61.1% (48-71%), and 25.9% (9-40%), respectively compared to untreated sandals. Sandals fitted with hessian bands measuring 240 cm2 and treated with 0.15 g and 0.10 g transfluthrin reduced mosquito landings by 59% (43-71%) and 64% (48-74%), respectively. In field experiments, sandals fitted with hessian bands measuring 48 cm2 and treated with 0.15 g transfluthrin reduced mosquito landings by 70% (60-76%) against Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, and 66.0% (59-71%) against all mosquito species combined.

CONCLUSION

Transfluthrin-treated sandals conferred significant protection against mosquito bites in semi-field and field settings. Further evaluation is recommended for this tool as a potential complementary intervention against malaria. This intervention could be particularly useful for protecting against outdoor exposure to mosquito bites. Additional studies are necessary to optimize treatment techniques and substrates, establish safety profiles and determine epidemiological impact in different settings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania. psangoro@icipe.org. International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya. psangoro@icipe.org.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania. School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania. Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. School of Life Sciences and Bio Engineering, The Nelson Mandela, African Institution of Science and Technology, Tengeru, Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania. Pan African Mosquito Control Association, Nairobi, Kenya.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania. Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. School of Life Sciences and Bio Engineering, The Nelson Mandela, African Institution of Science and Technology, Tengeru, Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32268907

Citation

Sangoro, Onyango P., et al. "Evaluation of Personal Protection Afforded By Repellent-treated Sandals Against Mosquito Bites in South-eastern Tanzania." Malaria Journal, vol. 19, no. 1, 2020, p. 148.
Sangoro OP, Gavana T, Finda M, et al. Evaluation of personal protection afforded by repellent-treated sandals against mosquito bites in south-eastern Tanzania. Malar J. 2020;19(1):148.
Sangoro, O. P., Gavana, T., Finda, M., Mponzi, W., Hape, E., Limwagu, A., Govella, N. J., Chaki, P., & Okumu, F. O. (2020). Evaluation of personal protection afforded by repellent-treated sandals against mosquito bites in south-eastern Tanzania. Malaria Journal, 19(1), 148. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-020-03215-7
Sangoro OP, et al. Evaluation of Personal Protection Afforded By Repellent-treated Sandals Against Mosquito Bites in South-eastern Tanzania. Malar J. 2020 Apr 8;19(1):148. PubMed PMID: 32268907.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of personal protection afforded by repellent-treated sandals against mosquito bites in south-eastern Tanzania. AU - Sangoro,Onyango P, AU - Gavana,Tegemeo, AU - Finda,Marceline, AU - Mponzi,Winfrida, AU - Hape,Emmanuel, AU - Limwagu,Alex, AU - Govella,Nicodem J, AU - Chaki,Prosper, AU - Okumu,Fredros O, Y1 - 2020/04/08/ PY - 2020/01/21/received PY - 2020/03/30/accepted PY - 2020/4/10/entrez PY - 2020/4/10/pubmed PY - 2020/11/11/medline KW - Ifakara KW - New tools KW - Residual malaria transmission KW - Transfluthrin KW - Transfluthrin-treated footwear KW - Vector borne diseases SP - 148 EP - 148 JF - Malaria journal JO - Malar J VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Outdoor and early evening mosquito biting needs to be addressed if malaria elimination is to be achieved. While indoor-targeted interventions, such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying, remain essential, complementary approaches that tackle persisting outdoor transmission are urgently required to maximize the impact. Major malaria vectors principally bite human hosts around the feet and ankles. Consequently, this study investigated whether sandals treated with efficacious spatial repellents can protect against outdoor biting mosquitoes. METHODOLOGY: Sandals affixed with hessian bands measuring 48 cm2 treated with 0.06 g, 0.10 g and 0.15 g of transfluthrin were tested in large cage semi-field and full field experiments. Sandals affixed with hessian bands measuring 240 cm2 and treated with 0.10 g and 0.15 g of transfluthrin were also tested semi field experiments. Human landing catches (HLC) were used to assess reduction in biting exposure by comparing proportions of mosquitoes landing on volunteers wearing treated and untreated sandals. Sandals were tested against insectary reared Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in semi-field experiments and against wild mosquito species in rural Tanzania. RESULTS: In semi-field tests, sandals fitted with hessian bands measuring 48 cm2 and treated with 0.15 g, 0.10 g and 0.06 g transfluthrin reduced mosquito landings by 45.9%, (95% confidence interval (C.I.) 28-59%), 61.1% (48-71%), and 25.9% (9-40%), respectively compared to untreated sandals. Sandals fitted with hessian bands measuring 240 cm2 and treated with 0.15 g and 0.10 g transfluthrin reduced mosquito landings by 59% (43-71%) and 64% (48-74%), respectively. In field experiments, sandals fitted with hessian bands measuring 48 cm2 and treated with 0.15 g transfluthrin reduced mosquito landings by 70% (60-76%) against Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, and 66.0% (59-71%) against all mosquito species combined. CONCLUSION: Transfluthrin-treated sandals conferred significant protection against mosquito bites in semi-field and field settings. Further evaluation is recommended for this tool as a potential complementary intervention against malaria. This intervention could be particularly useful for protecting against outdoor exposure to mosquito bites. Additional studies are necessary to optimize treatment techniques and substrates, establish safety profiles and determine epidemiological impact in different settings. SN - 1475-2875 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32268907/Evaluation_of_personal_protection_afforded_by_repellent_treated_sandals_against_mosquito_bites_in_south_eastern_Tanzania_ L2 - https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12936-020-03215-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -