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Comparative Replication and Immune Activation Profiles of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in Human Lungs: An Ex Vivo Study With Implications for the Pathogenesis of COVID-19.
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 09 12; 71(6):1400-1409.CI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging coronavirus that has resulted in more than 2 000 000 laboratory-confirmed cases including over 145 000 deaths. Although SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV share a number of common clinical manifestations, SARS-CoV-2 appears to be highly efficient in person-to-person transmission and frequently causes asymptomatic or presymptomatic infections. However, the underlying mechanisms that confer these viral characteristics of high transmissibility and asymptomatic infection remain incompletely understood.

METHODS

We comprehensively investigated the replication, cell tropism, and immune activation profile of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung tissues with SARS-CoV included as a comparison.

RESULTS

SARS-CoV-2 infected and replicated in human lung tissues more efficiently than SARS-CoV. Within the 48-hour interval, SARS-CoV-2 generated 3.20-fold more infectious virus particles than did SARS-CoV from the infected lung tissues (P < .024). SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV were similar in cell tropism, with both targeting types I and II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages. Importantly, despite the more efficient virus replication, SARS-CoV-2 did not significantly induce types I, II, or III interferons in the infected human lung tissues. In addition, while SARS-CoV infection upregulated the expression of 11 out of 13 (84.62%) representative proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, SARS-CoV-2 infection only upregulated 5 of these 13 (38.46%) key inflammatory mediators despite replicating more efficiently.

CONCLUSIONS

Our study provides the first quantitative data on the comparative replication capacity and immune activation profile of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection in human lung tissues. Our results provide important insights into the pathogenesis, high transmissibility, and asymptomatic infection of SARS-CoV-2.

Authors+Show Affiliations

State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infection Control, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China. Hainan Medical University-The University of Hong Kong Joint Laboratory of Tropical Infectious Diseases, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, Hainan, and The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infection Control, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infection Control, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China. Hainan Medical University-The University of Hong Kong Joint Laboratory of Tropical Infectious Diseases, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, Hainan, and The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32270184

Citation

Chu, Hin, et al. "Comparative Replication and Immune Activation Profiles of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in Human Lungs: an Ex Vivo Study With Implications for the Pathogenesis of COVID-19." Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, vol. 71, no. 6, 2020, pp. 1400-1409.
Chu H, Chan JF, Wang Y, et al. Comparative Replication and Immune Activation Profiles of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in Human Lungs: An Ex Vivo Study With Implications for the Pathogenesis of COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(6):1400-1409.
Chu, H., Chan, J. F., Wang, Y., Yuen, T. T., Chai, Y., Hou, Y., Shuai, H., Yang, D., Hu, B., Huang, X., Zhang, X., Cai, J. P., Zhou, J., Yuan, S., Kok, K. H., To, K. K., Chan, I. H., Zhang, A. J., Sit, K. Y., ... Yuen, K. Y. (2020). Comparative Replication and Immune Activation Profiles of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in Human Lungs: An Ex Vivo Study With Implications for the Pathogenesis of COVID-19. Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 71(6), 1400-1409. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa410
Chu H, et al. Comparative Replication and Immune Activation Profiles of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in Human Lungs: an Ex Vivo Study With Implications for the Pathogenesis of COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 09 12;71(6):1400-1409. PubMed PMID: 32270184.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparative Replication and Immune Activation Profiles of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in Human Lungs: An Ex Vivo Study With Implications for the Pathogenesis of COVID-19. AU - Chu,Hin, AU - Chan,Jasper Fuk-Woo, AU - Wang,Yixin, AU - Yuen,Terrence Tsz-Tai, AU - Chai,Yue, AU - Hou,Yuxin, AU - Shuai,Huiping, AU - Yang,Dong, AU - Hu,Bingjie, AU - Huang,Xiner, AU - Zhang,Xi, AU - Cai,Jian-Piao, AU - Zhou,Jie, AU - Yuan,Shuofeng, AU - Kok,Kin-Hang, AU - To,Kelvin Kai-Wang, AU - Chan,Ivy Hau-Yee, AU - Zhang,Anna Jinxia, AU - Sit,Ko-Yung, AU - Au,Wing-Kuk, AU - Yuen,Kwok-Yung, PY - 2020/04/04/received PY - 2020/04/08/accepted PY - 2020/4/10/pubmed PY - 2020/9/25/medline PY - 2020/4/10/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - coronavirus KW - ex vivo KW - interferon SP - 1400 EP - 1409 JF - Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America JO - Clin. Infect. Dis. VL - 71 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging coronavirus that has resulted in more than 2 000 000 laboratory-confirmed cases including over 145 000 deaths. Although SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV share a number of common clinical manifestations, SARS-CoV-2 appears to be highly efficient in person-to-person transmission and frequently causes asymptomatic or presymptomatic infections. However, the underlying mechanisms that confer these viral characteristics of high transmissibility and asymptomatic infection remain incompletely understood. METHODS: We comprehensively investigated the replication, cell tropism, and immune activation profile of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung tissues with SARS-CoV included as a comparison. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infected and replicated in human lung tissues more efficiently than SARS-CoV. Within the 48-hour interval, SARS-CoV-2 generated 3.20-fold more infectious virus particles than did SARS-CoV from the infected lung tissues (P < .024). SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV were similar in cell tropism, with both targeting types I and II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages. Importantly, despite the more efficient virus replication, SARS-CoV-2 did not significantly induce types I, II, or III interferons in the infected human lung tissues. In addition, while SARS-CoV infection upregulated the expression of 11 out of 13 (84.62%) representative proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, SARS-CoV-2 infection only upregulated 5 of these 13 (38.46%) key inflammatory mediators despite replicating more efficiently. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first quantitative data on the comparative replication capacity and immune activation profile of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection in human lung tissues. Our results provide important insights into the pathogenesis, high transmissibility, and asymptomatic infection of SARS-CoV-2. SN - 1537-6591 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32270184/Comparative_Replication_and_Immune_Activation_Profiles_of_SARS_CoV_2_and_SARS_CoV_in_Human_Lungs:_An_Ex_Vivo_Study_With_Implications_for_the_Pathogenesis_of_COVID_19_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/cid/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa410 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -