Plexiform Schwannoma of the Oral Cavity: Report of Eight Cases and a Review of the Literature.Head Neck Pathol. 2020 Apr 08 [Online ahead of print]HN
Plexiform schwannoma represents an unusual schwannoma variant, characterized by multinodular growth grossly and/or microscopically. A review of the English-language literature reveals only 28 previously reported cases involving the oral cavity, and herein we present 8 additional cases. Among these 36 patients, the average age at diagnosis was 28 years (range 5 to 62 years), with a female-to-male ratio of 1.4:1. The most frequently involved sites were the tongue (n = 13) and lip (n = 11). Lesion duration prior to presentation averaged 5.3 years (range, 6 weeks to 26 years). The average lesion size was 2.1 cm (range, 0.3 to 16 cm). The typical clinical presentation was a painless mass, although infrequent findings included pain/discomfort, paresthesia, difficulty chewing, and limited buccal mobility. All cases clinically appeared as a solitary mass or localized cluster of tumor nodules, with the exception of one patient who had neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) and exhibited two distinct nodules on the tongue and buccal mucosa. In addition, extraoral neural neoplasms were evident in four patients, including three with NF2. Typical microscopic findings included multiple well-circumscribed tumor nodules, each surrounded by a perineurium-derived capsule with immunoreactivity for epithelial membrane antigen. The nodules contained characteristically bland and diffusely S-100-positive spindle cells arranged in Antoni A and B patterns; however, modest nuclear pleomorphism was evident in three cases. Most patients (n = 23) were treated by excision or enucleation and curettage, and three patients experienced recurrence. Unlike plexiform neurofibromas, plexiform schwannomas exhibit only a weak association with neurofibromatosis and have no known malignant potential.