Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Estimation of the number of workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica by industry: Analysis of OSHA compliance data (1979-2015).
Am J Ind Med. 2020 06; 63(6):465-477.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Respirable crystalline silica (RCS) can potentially cause silicosis, lung cancer, and renal failure. The current study estimates the percentages of workers potentially overexposed to concentrations of RCS dust and silicosis proportional mortality rates (PMRs) by industry.

METHODS

Occupational Safety and Health Administration compliance inspection sampling data for RCS collected during 1979 to 2015 were used to estimate percentages of workers exposed. The results were used in combination with US Census Bureau estimates to produce industry specific worker population estimates for 2014. Estimates of the numbers and percentages of workers exposed to RCS concentrations at least 1, 2, 5, and 10 times the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit (REL) were calculated by industry using the 2002 North American Industry Classification System. Silicosis PMRs by industry were estimated using National Center for Health Statistics multiple cause of death data.

RESULTS

RCS concentrations/workers exposed were highest in the poured concrete foundation and structure contractors; commercial and institutional building construction; and masonry contractors. Approximately 100 000 workers were exposed above the RCS REL, and most (79%) worked in the construction industry. Tile and terrazzo contractors (12%); brick, stone, and related construction merchant wholesalers (10%); masonry contractors (6%) and poured concrete foundation and structure contractors (6%) were the highest percentages of workers potentially overexposed. PMRs were highest for the structural clay product manufacturing and the foundries industries.

CONCLUSION

Percentages of workers exposed to RCS varied by industry and in some industries workers are exposed over 10 times the REL. Exposures can be reduced below the REL by implementing the hierarchy of controls.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, West Virginia.Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, West Virginia.Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, West Virginia.Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32270550

Citation

Doney, Brent C., et al. "Estimation of the Number of Workers Exposed to Respirable Crystalline Silica By Industry: Analysis of OSHA Compliance Data (1979-2015)." American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 63, no. 6, 2020, pp. 465-477.
Doney BC, Miller WE, Hale JM, et al. Estimation of the number of workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica by industry: Analysis of OSHA compliance data (1979-2015). Am J Ind Med. 2020;63(6):465-477.
Doney, B. C., Miller, W. E., Hale, J. M., & Syamlal, G. (2020). Estimation of the number of workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica by industry: Analysis of OSHA compliance data (1979-2015). American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 63(6), 465-477. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.23109
Doney BC, et al. Estimation of the Number of Workers Exposed to Respirable Crystalline Silica By Industry: Analysis of OSHA Compliance Data (1979-2015). Am J Ind Med. 2020;63(6):465-477. PubMed PMID: 32270550.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Estimation of the number of workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica by industry: Analysis of OSHA compliance data (1979-2015). AU - Doney,Brent C, AU - Miller,William E, AU - Hale,Janet M, AU - Syamlal,Girija, Y1 - 2020/04/09/ PY - 2019/12/27/received PY - 2020/03/17/revised PY - 2020/03/20/accepted PY - 2020/4/10/pubmed PY - 2021/5/1/medline PY - 2020/4/10/entrez KW - OSHA compliance data KW - PMR KW - crystalline silica KW - industries KW - silicosis mortality KW - worker exposure estimates SP - 465 EP - 477 JF - American journal of industrial medicine JO - Am J Ind Med VL - 63 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Respirable crystalline silica (RCS) can potentially cause silicosis, lung cancer, and renal failure. The current study estimates the percentages of workers potentially overexposed to concentrations of RCS dust and silicosis proportional mortality rates (PMRs) by industry. METHODS: Occupational Safety and Health Administration compliance inspection sampling data for RCS collected during 1979 to 2015 were used to estimate percentages of workers exposed. The results were used in combination with US Census Bureau estimates to produce industry specific worker population estimates for 2014. Estimates of the numbers and percentages of workers exposed to RCS concentrations at least 1, 2, 5, and 10 times the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit (REL) were calculated by industry using the 2002 North American Industry Classification System. Silicosis PMRs by industry were estimated using National Center for Health Statistics multiple cause of death data. RESULTS: RCS concentrations/workers exposed were highest in the poured concrete foundation and structure contractors; commercial and institutional building construction; and masonry contractors. Approximately 100 000 workers were exposed above the RCS REL, and most (79%) worked in the construction industry. Tile and terrazzo contractors (12%); brick, stone, and related construction merchant wholesalers (10%); masonry contractors (6%) and poured concrete foundation and structure contractors (6%) were the highest percentages of workers potentially overexposed. PMRs were highest for the structural clay product manufacturing and the foundries industries. CONCLUSION: Percentages of workers exposed to RCS varied by industry and in some industries workers are exposed over 10 times the REL. Exposures can be reduced below the REL by implementing the hierarchy of controls. SN - 1097-0274 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32270550/Estimation_of_the_number_of_workers_exposed_to_respirable_crystalline_silica_by_industry:_Analysis_of_OSHA_compliance_data__1979_2015__ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.23109 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -