Genome editing with the CRISPR-Cas system: an art, ethics and global regulatory perspective.Plant Biotechnol J. 2020 08; 18(8):1651-1669.PB
Over the last three decades, the development of new genome editing techniques, such as ODM, TALENs, ZFNs and the CRISPR-Cas system, has led to significant progress in the field of plant and animal breeding. The CRISPR-Cas system is the most versatile genome editing tool discovered in the history of molecular biology because it can be used to alter diverse genomes (e.g. genomes from both plants and animals) including human genomes with unprecedented ease, accuracy and high efficiency. The recent development and scope of CRISPR-Cas system have raised new regulatory challenges around the world due to moral, ethical, safety and technical concerns associated with its applications in pre-clinical and clinical research, biomedicine and agriculture. Here, we review the art, applications and potential risks of CRISPR-Cas system in genome editing. We also highlight the patent and ethical issues of this technology along with regulatory frameworks established by various nations to regulate CRISPR-Cas-modified organisms/products.