Rash and Mucositis Associated With Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A Recurrence of MIRM?J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020 Apr 10 [Online ahead of print]JP
A new concept has come to light recently, that is, Mycoplasma-induced rash and mucositis (MIRM). Here, we report the first case of recurrent rash, mucositis, and conjunctivitis involving Mycoplasma pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae that fits under the criteria of what is currently defined as MIRM.
A patient aged 12 years with a history of recurrent aphthous ulcers presented in 2013 with worsening oral lesions, conjunctivitis, and vesicular rash. Her respiratory polymerase chain reaction (PCR) panel was positive for M. pneumoniae. She was diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) secondary to M. pneumoniae and treated with a macrolide, acyclovir, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). The same patient returned 3 years later with an identical constellation of symptoms, at which time her PCR was positive for C. pneumoniae. In addition to IVIG and a macrolide, a corticosteroid treatment was administered.
Here, we present the case of a pediatric patient with a recurrence of mucocutaneous disease that is more consistent with MIRM than the proposed SJS or erythema multiforme (EM) documented via histology. Our patient's symptoms were controlled with azithromycin and IVIG and, in the second episode, with corticosteroids as well. This case adds to that of Mayor-Ibarguren et al, providing further evidence that C. pneumonia may also be a trigger for MIRM. Patients will benefit from expanding the definition of MIRM, as the pathogenesis differs from SJS and EM and could result in more specific treatment options.