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Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid-19.
N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 10 [Online ahead of print]NEJM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Remdesivir, a nucleotide analogue prodrug that inhibits viral RNA polymerases, has shown in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2.

METHODS

We provided remdesivir on a compassionate-use basis to patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the illness caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. Patients were those with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who had an oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or who were receiving oxygen support. Patients received a 10-day course of remdesivir, consisting of 200 mg administered intravenously on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for the remaining 9 days of treatment. This report is based on data from patients who received remdesivir during the period from January 25, 2020, through March 7, 2020, and have clinical data for at least 1 subsequent day.

RESULTS

Of the 61 patients who received at least one dose of remdesivir, data from 8 could not be analyzed (including 7 patients with no post-treatment data and 1 with a dosing error). Of the 53 patients whose data were analyzed, 22 were in the United States, 22 in Europe or Canada, and 9 in Japan. At baseline, 30 patients (57%) were receiving mechanical ventilation and 4 (8%) were receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. During a median follow-up of 18 days, 36 patients (68%) had an improvement in oxygen-support class, including 17 of 30 patients (57%) receiving mechanical ventilation who were extubated. A total of 25 patients (47%) were discharged, and 7 patients (13%) died; mortality was 18% (6 of 34) among patients receiving invasive ventilation and 5% (1 of 19) among those not receiving invasive ventilation.

CONCLUSIONS

In this cohort of patients hospitalized for severe Covid-19 who were treated with compassionate-use remdesivir, clinical improvement was observed in 36 of 53 patients (68%). Measurement of efficacy will require ongoing randomized, placebo-controlled trials of remdesivir therapy. (Funded by Gilead Sciences.).

Authors+Show Affiliations

From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).From Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (J.G.), El Camino Hospital, Mountain View (D.S., D. Chelliah), Sutter Santa Rosa Regional Hospital, Santa Rosa (G.G.), Regional Medical Center (A.S., J.R.) and Good Samaritan Hospital (S.M.), San Jose, John Muir Health, Walnut Creek (J.B.), UC Davis Health, Sacramento (S.H.C.), NorthBay Medical Center, Fairfield (S.I.), and Gilead Sciences, Foster City (A.O.O., A.D., Y.Z., L.Z., A. Chokkalingam, E.E., L. Telep, L. Timbs, I.H., S.S., H.C., S.K.T., L.W., P.D., R.M., A.G., R.P.M., D.M.B.) - all in California; the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (N.O.), Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City (R.O.), Hiratsuka City Hospital, Hiratsuka (K.Y.), Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama (H.K.), Gunma University Hospital, Gunma (T.M.), and Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Y.M.) - all in Japan; Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Everett (G.D.), and University of Washington Medical Center-Northwest (M.L.G.) and Virginia Mason Medical Center (S. Chihara), Seattle - all in Washington; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (E.A.), IRCCS, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (A. Castagna) and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali (ASST) Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health Services, University of Milan (A.D.M.), Milan, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, IRCCS, L. Spallanzani, Rome (E.N.), Università degli Study of Brescia, ASST Civili di Brescia, Brescia (E.Q.-R.), San Gerardo Hospital, ASST Monza, University of Milan-Bicocca, Monza (G.L.), and Azienda Unite Sanitarie Locali-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (M.M.) - all in Italy; Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (T. Feldt); Université de Paris, Infection, Antimicrobiens, Modélisation, Evolution (IAME), INSERM, and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Infectious Diseases, Bichat Hospital, Paris (F.-X.L.), Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Brest-La Cavale Blanche, Brest (E.L.), and Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (D.N.) - all in France; St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL (S.A.); Mackenzie Health, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada (D. Chen); Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (J.C.); Hospital Universitario La Paz-Carlos III, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (M.M.-R.); Bernhoven Hospital, Uden, the Netherlands (E.V.); Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital, Vienna (A.Z.); the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Washington, DC (R.C.); and Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI (T. Flanigan).

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32275812

Citation

Grein, Jonathan, et al. "Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients With Severe Covid-19." The New England Journal of Medicine, 2020.
Grein J, Ohmagari N, Shin D, et al. Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020.
Grein, J., Ohmagari, N., Shin, D., Diaz, G., Asperges, E., Castagna, A., Feldt, T., Green, G., Green, M. L., Lescure, F. X., Nicastri, E., Oda, R., Yo, K., Quiros-Roldan, E., Studemeister, A., Redinski, J., Ahmed, S., Bernett, J., Chelliah, D., ... Flanigan, T. (2020). Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid-19. The New England Journal of Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2007016
Grein J, et al. Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients With Severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 10; PubMed PMID: 32275812.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Compassionate Use of Remdesivir for Patients with Severe Covid-19. AU - Grein,Jonathan, AU - Ohmagari,Norio, AU - Shin,Daniel, AU - Diaz,George, AU - Asperges,Erika, AU - Castagna,Antonella, AU - Feldt,Torsten, AU - Green,Gary, AU - Green,Margaret L, AU - Lescure,François-Xavier, AU - Nicastri,Emanuele, AU - Oda,Rentaro, AU - Yo,Kikuo, AU - Quiros-Roldan,Eugenia, AU - Studemeister,Alex, AU - Redinski,John, AU - Ahmed,Seema, AU - Bernett,Jorge, AU - Chelliah,Daniel, AU - Chen,Danny, AU - Chihara,Shingo, AU - Cohen,Stuart H, AU - Cunningham,Jennifer, AU - D'Arminio Monforte,Antonella, AU - Ismail,Saad, AU - Kato,Hideaki, AU - Lapadula,Giuseppe, AU - L'Her,Erwan, AU - Maeno,Toshitaka, AU - Majumder,Sumit, AU - Massari,Marco, AU - Mora-Rillo,Marta, AU - Mutoh,Yoshikazu, AU - Nguyen,Duc, AU - Verweij,Ewa, AU - Zoufaly,Alexander, AU - Osinusi,Anu O, AU - DeZure,Adam, AU - Zhao,Yang, AU - Zhong,Lijie, AU - Chokkalingam,Anand, AU - Elboudwarej,Emon, AU - Telep,Laura, AU - Timbs,Leighann, AU - Henne,Ilana, AU - Sellers,Scott, AU - Cao,Huyen, AU - Tan,Susanna K, AU - Winterbourne,Lucinda, AU - Desai,Polly, AU - Mera,Robertino, AU - Gaggar,Anuj, AU - Myers,Robert P, AU - Brainard,Diana M, AU - Childs,Richard, AU - Flanigan,Timothy, Y1 - 2020/04/10/ PY - 2020/4/11/entrez PY - 2020/4/11/pubmed PY - 2020/4/11/medline JF - The New England journal of medicine JO - N. Engl. J. Med. N2 - BACKGROUND: Remdesivir, a nucleotide analogue prodrug that inhibits viral RNA polymerases, has shown in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We provided remdesivir on a compassionate-use basis to patients hospitalized with Covid-19, the illness caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. Patients were those with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who had an oxygen saturation of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or who were receiving oxygen support. Patients received a 10-day course of remdesivir, consisting of 200 mg administered intravenously on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for the remaining 9 days of treatment. This report is based on data from patients who received remdesivir during the period from January 25, 2020, through March 7, 2020, and have clinical data for at least 1 subsequent day. RESULTS: Of the 61 patients who received at least one dose of remdesivir, data from 8 could not be analyzed (including 7 patients with no post-treatment data and 1 with a dosing error). Of the 53 patients whose data were analyzed, 22 were in the United States, 22 in Europe or Canada, and 9 in Japan. At baseline, 30 patients (57%) were receiving mechanical ventilation and 4 (8%) were receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. During a median follow-up of 18 days, 36 patients (68%) had an improvement in oxygen-support class, including 17 of 30 patients (57%) receiving mechanical ventilation who were extubated. A total of 25 patients (47%) were discharged, and 7 patients (13%) died; mortality was 18% (6 of 34) among patients receiving invasive ventilation and 5% (1 of 19) among those not receiving invasive ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients hospitalized for severe Covid-19 who were treated with compassionate-use remdesivir, clinical improvement was observed in 36 of 53 patients (68%). Measurement of efficacy will require ongoing randomized, placebo-controlled trials of remdesivir therapy. (Funded by Gilead Sciences.). SN - 1533-4406 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32275812/full_citation L2 - http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2007016?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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