Assessment of Cd availability in rice cultivation (Oryza sativa): Effects of amendments and the spatiotemporal chemical changes in the rhizosphere and bulk soil.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2020 Jun 15; 196:110490.EE
Immobilization is widely used to decrease the availability of heavy metals, such as Cd and Pb, in contaminated soils. However, the spatial and temporal changes in the immobilization of soil by amendments combined with planting effects have not been studied well. In this study, unplanted and planted (with rice plants) pot experiments were used to assess the spatial and temporal changes in water-soluble Cd, Fe, Mn, and Ca. Soil properties, such as pH, redox potential (Eh), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), were continuously recorded in both the rhizosphere and bulk soil using non-invasive rhizon samplers and a microelectrode system (Unisense). In unplanted soil, pH and Eh varied with time, but showed little radial variation from the rhizosphere to the bulk soil. The addition of hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) sharply increased the pH, DOC, and Ca content; decreased the Eh, Fe content, and Mn content; and gradually decreased the water-soluble Cd content in the soil profile. Hydroxyapatite showed no obvious effects in reducing Cd concentrations in different soil zones. The water-soluble Fe, Mn, Ca, and DOC content did not differ significantly between soil zones over time and a non-significant correlation with water-soluble Cd was shown. In planted soil, the pH increased while the Eh value decreased with an increase in the distance from the roots, regardless of the soil amendments used during the rice growth period. Hydroxyapatite gradually increased but hydrated lime decreased the water-soluble Cd in the rhizosphere. The concentration of water-soluble Cd in the rhizosphere was higher than that of the other soil zones during rice growth. These changes lead to more Cd uptake by roots and induced Cd accumulation in rice tissues. In addition, Cd and Fe concentration in iron plaque showed a significant positive correlation with Cd in rice, indicating that iron plaque promotes the uptake and accumulation of Cd in rice with soil amendments. Compared with the control, hydroxyapatite did not significantly affect the Cd content, while Ca(OH)2 significantly reduced the Cd content in iron plaque and rice tissues. In conclusion, the application of hydrated lime can significantly reduce the risk of Cd accumulation by rice in Cd-contaminated soils under flooding conditions.