Challenges and cares to promote rational use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: a timely review.J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2020 05 18; 23(4):177-181.JT
As a result of the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19), there has been an urgent worldwide demand for treatments. Due to factors such as history of prescription for other infectious diseases, availability, and relatively low cost, the use of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been tested in vivo and in vitro for the ability to inhibit the causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, even though investigators noted the therapeutic potential of these drugs, it is important to consider the toxicological risks and necessary care for rational use of CQ and HCQ. This study provides information on the main toxicological and epidemiological aspects to be considered for prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19 using CQ but mainly HCQ, which is a less toxic derivative than CQ, and was shown to produce better results in inhibiting proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 based upon preliminary tests.