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Ethylene glycol and glycolic acid production from xylonic acid by Enterobacter cloacae.
Microb Cell Fact. 2020 Apr 15; 19(1):89.MC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Biological routes for ethylene glycol production have been developed in recent years by constructing the synthesis pathways in different microorganisms. However, no microorganisms have been reported yet to produce ethylene glycol naturally.

RESULTS

Xylonic acid utilizing microorganisms were screened from natural environments, and an Enterobacter cloacae strain was isolated. The major metabolites of this strain were ethylene glycol and glycolic acid. However, the metabolites were switched to 2,3-butanediol, acetoin or acetic acid when this strain was cultured with other carbon sources. The metabolic pathway of ethylene glycol synthesis from xylonic acid in this bacterium was identified. Xylonic acid was converted to 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate catalyzed by D-xylonic acid dehydratase. 2-Dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate was converted to form pyruvate and glycolaldehyde, and this reaction was catalyzed by an aldolase. D-Xylonic acid dehydratase and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate aldolase were encoded by yjhG and yjhH, respectively. The two genes are part of the same operon and are located adjacent on the chromosome. Besides yjhG and yjhH, this operon contains four other genes. However, individually inactivation of these four genes had no effect on either ethylene glycol or glycolic acid production; both formed from glycolaldehyde. YqhD exhibits ethylene glycol dehydrogenase activity in vitro. However, a low level of ethylene glycol was still synthesized by E. cloacae ΔyqhD. Fermentation parameters for ethylene glycol and glycolic acid production by the E. cloacae strain were optimized, and aerobic cultivation at neutral pH were found to be optimal. In fed batch culture, 34 g/L of ethylene glycol and 13 g/L of glycolic acid were produced in 46 h, with a total conversion ratio of 0.99 mol/mol xylonic acid.

CONCLUSIONS

A novel route of xylose biorefinery via xylonic acid as an intermediate has been established.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Life Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, People's Republic of China. Lab of Biorefinery, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201210, People's Republic of China. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, People's Republic of China.School of Life Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, People's Republic of China. Lab of Biorefinery, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201210, People's Republic of China. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, People's Republic of China.School of Life Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, People's Republic of China. Lab of Biorefinery, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201210, People's Republic of China. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, People's Republic of China.Lab of Biorefinery, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201210, People's Republic of China. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, People's Republic of China.Lab of Biorefinery, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201210, People's Republic of China.School of Life Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, People's Republic of China.Lab of Biorefinery, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201210, People's Republic of China. School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.Microbial Biotechnology Research Center, Jeonbuk Branch Institute, KRIBB, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk, 556212, South Korea.Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London, Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH, UK.Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London, Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH, UK. f.baganz@ucl.ac.uk.Lab of Biorefinery, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201210, People's Republic of China. haoj@sari.ac.cn. Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London, Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH, UK. haoj@sari.ac.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32293454

Citation

Zhang, Zhongxi, et al. "Ethylene Glycol and Glycolic Acid Production From Xylonic Acid By Enterobacter Cloacae." Microbial Cell Factories, vol. 19, no. 1, 2020, p. 89.
Zhang Z, Yang Y, Wang Y, et al. Ethylene glycol and glycolic acid production from xylonic acid by Enterobacter cloacae. Microb Cell Fact. 2020;19(1):89.
Zhang, Z., Yang, Y., Wang, Y., Gu, J., Lu, X., Liao, X., Shi, J., Kim, C. H., Lye, G., Baganz, F., & Hao, J. (2020). Ethylene glycol and glycolic acid production from xylonic acid by Enterobacter cloacae. Microbial Cell Factories, 19(1), 89. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934-020-01347-8
Zhang Z, et al. Ethylene Glycol and Glycolic Acid Production From Xylonic Acid By Enterobacter Cloacae. Microb Cell Fact. 2020 Apr 15;19(1):89. PubMed PMID: 32293454.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ethylene glycol and glycolic acid production from xylonic acid by Enterobacter cloacae. AU - Zhang,Zhongxi, AU - Yang,Yang, AU - Wang,Yike, AU - Gu,Jinjie, AU - Lu,Xiyang, AU - Liao,Xianyan, AU - Shi,Jiping, AU - Kim,Chul Ho, AU - Lye,Gary, AU - Baganz,Frank, AU - Hao,Jian, Y1 - 2020/04/15/ PY - 2019/12/19/received PY - 2020/04/05/accepted PY - 2020/4/16/entrez PY - 2020/4/16/pubmed PY - 2020/4/16/medline KW - Enterobacter cloacae KW - Ethylene glycol KW - Glycolic acid KW - Xylonic acid KW - Xylose SP - 89 EP - 89 JF - Microbial cell factories JO - Microb. Cell Fact. VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Biological routes for ethylene glycol production have been developed in recent years by constructing the synthesis pathways in different microorganisms. However, no microorganisms have been reported yet to produce ethylene glycol naturally. RESULTS: Xylonic acid utilizing microorganisms were screened from natural environments, and an Enterobacter cloacae strain was isolated. The major metabolites of this strain were ethylene glycol and glycolic acid. However, the metabolites were switched to 2,3-butanediol, acetoin or acetic acid when this strain was cultured with other carbon sources. The metabolic pathway of ethylene glycol synthesis from xylonic acid in this bacterium was identified. Xylonic acid was converted to 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate catalyzed by D-xylonic acid dehydratase. 2-Dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate was converted to form pyruvate and glycolaldehyde, and this reaction was catalyzed by an aldolase. D-Xylonic acid dehydratase and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate aldolase were encoded by yjhG and yjhH, respectively. The two genes are part of the same operon and are located adjacent on the chromosome. Besides yjhG and yjhH, this operon contains four other genes. However, individually inactivation of these four genes had no effect on either ethylene glycol or glycolic acid production; both formed from glycolaldehyde. YqhD exhibits ethylene glycol dehydrogenase activity in vitro. However, a low level of ethylene glycol was still synthesized by E. cloacae ΔyqhD. Fermentation parameters for ethylene glycol and glycolic acid production by the E. cloacae strain were optimized, and aerobic cultivation at neutral pH were found to be optimal. In fed batch culture, 34 g/L of ethylene glycol and 13 g/L of glycolic acid were produced in 46 h, with a total conversion ratio of 0.99 mol/mol xylonic acid. CONCLUSIONS: A novel route of xylose biorefinery via xylonic acid as an intermediate has been established. SN - 1475-2859 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32293454/Ethylene_glycol_and_glycolic_acid_production_from_xylonic_acid_by_Enterobacter_cloacae L2 - https://microbialcellfactories.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12934-020-01347-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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