Involvement of oxidative stress in the sensitivity of two algal species exposed to roxithromycin.Ecotoxicology. 2020 Jul; 29(5):625-633.E
Algal species Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris are commonly used to test the chemicals with an antibacterial mode of action during marketing authorization process. However, significant differences in the sensitivity toward antibiotic exposure have been reported. The selection of an inappropriate test species would thus underestimate the environmental hazard of target chemicals and pose a potential threat to the ecosystem. Since oxidative stress is a crucial factor determining the inhibition of algal growth, an investigation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense mechanisms in these two species was performed to explore its roles in species sensitivity. Here, roxithromycin (ROX), a macrolide antibiotic extensively used to treat respiratory, urinary and soft tissue infections, was used for testing. After 7 days exposure to ROX at the low (0.01 mg L-1) and high (0.09 mg L-1) concentrations, R. subcapitata was inhibited while the growth of C. vulgaris was stimulated. We investigated the roles of oxidative stress in algae by measuring the oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA), non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH), and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GP, GST). The results suggested that when the growth of algae is inhibited, MDA content as well as activities of oxidative stress enzymes would increase, and thus, activating the antioxidant system. On the contrary, it was inferred that when the growth is stimulated, MDA content and oxidative stress enzymes activities would decrease.