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The Role of Social Support in the Association between Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Self-injury and Suicide: Findings from a Statewide Sample of High School Students.
J Youth Adolesc. 2020 Jun; 49(6):1195-1208.JY

Abstract

Extensive literature documents that adverse childhood experiences increase risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide behaviors among adolescents. However, few studies have examined patterns of co-occurring family based adversities, whether distinct patterns of adversity are differentially associated with NSSI and suicide behaviors, and if social support can offset the impact of adversity for these behaviors. This study used a statewide school-based sample that was 50.1% female, 71% non-Hispanic White, and evenly divided by grade (9th grade N = 39,682; 11th grade N = 33,966). Latent class analysis identified three mutually exclusive, homogeneous subgroups of co-occurring familial adversities; low or no family based adversity, parental dysfunction but low maltreatment, and parental dysfunction plus maltreatment. The relationships between membership in the identified subgroups and past year NSSI, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt were assessed separately for 9th graders (average age = 14) and 11th graders (average age = 17). Although membership in the parent dysfunction plus maltreatment class was associated with the highest odds of NSSI, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt, membership in either class of familial adversity elevated risk for these behaviors compared to membership in the low or no adversity class. Whether the protective effects of perceived peer and teacher social support moderated these associations and varied across age groups was also explored. The findings suggest that peer and teacher social support can promote positive outcomes even for youth living in stressful family conditions and that the protective effects of social support increase as the number of sources of support expands.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Sciences, California State University, Northridge. 18111 Nordhoff St. Northridge, California, CA, 91330, USA. myriam.forster@csun.edu.Department of Public Health, University of Texas at San Antonio, 1 UTSA Cir., San Antonio, TX, 78249, USA.Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Health - Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.Institute for Translational Research in Children's Mental Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32297174

Citation

Forster, Myriam, et al. "The Role of Social Support in the Association Between Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Self-injury and Suicide: Findings From a Statewide Sample of High School Students." Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 49, no. 6, 2020, pp. 1195-1208.
Forster M, Grigsby TJ, Gower AL, et al. The Role of Social Support in the Association between Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Self-injury and Suicide: Findings from a Statewide Sample of High School Students. J Youth Adolesc. 2020;49(6):1195-1208.
Forster, M., Grigsby, T. J., Gower, A. L., Mehus, C. J., & McMorris, B. J. (2020). The Role of Social Support in the Association between Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Self-injury and Suicide: Findings from a Statewide Sample of High School Students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 49(6), 1195-1208. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-020-01235-9
Forster M, et al. The Role of Social Support in the Association Between Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Self-injury and Suicide: Findings From a Statewide Sample of High School Students. J Youth Adolesc. 2020;49(6):1195-1208. PubMed PMID: 32297174.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Role of Social Support in the Association between Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Self-injury and Suicide: Findings from a Statewide Sample of High School Students. AU - Forster,Myriam, AU - Grigsby,Timothy J, AU - Gower,Amy L, AU - Mehus,Christopher J, AU - McMorris,Barbara J, Y1 - 2020/04/15/ PY - 2019/12/17/received PY - 2020/03/27/accepted PY - 2020/4/17/pubmed PY - 2020/10/27/medline PY - 2020/4/17/entrez KW - Adolescents KW - Adverse childhood experiences KW - School-based social support KW - suicide behaviors SP - 1195 EP - 1208 JF - Journal of youth and adolescence JO - J Youth Adolesc VL - 49 IS - 6 N2 - Extensive literature documents that adverse childhood experiences increase risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide behaviors among adolescents. However, few studies have examined patterns of co-occurring family based adversities, whether distinct patterns of adversity are differentially associated with NSSI and suicide behaviors, and if social support can offset the impact of adversity for these behaviors. This study used a statewide school-based sample that was 50.1% female, 71% non-Hispanic White, and evenly divided by grade (9th grade N = 39,682; 11th grade N = 33,966). Latent class analysis identified three mutually exclusive, homogeneous subgroups of co-occurring familial adversities; low or no family based adversity, parental dysfunction but low maltreatment, and parental dysfunction plus maltreatment. The relationships between membership in the identified subgroups and past year NSSI, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt were assessed separately for 9th graders (average age = 14) and 11th graders (average age = 17). Although membership in the parent dysfunction plus maltreatment class was associated with the highest odds of NSSI, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt, membership in either class of familial adversity elevated risk for these behaviors compared to membership in the low or no adversity class. Whether the protective effects of perceived peer and teacher social support moderated these associations and varied across age groups was also explored. The findings suggest that peer and teacher social support can promote positive outcomes even for youth living in stressful family conditions and that the protective effects of social support increase as the number of sources of support expands. SN - 1573-6601 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32297174/The_Role_of_Social_Support_in_the_Association_between_Childhood_Adversity_and_Adolescent_Self_injury_and_Suicide:_Findings_from_a_Statewide_Sample_of_High_School_Students_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-020-01235-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -