Current and former smokers and hip fractures.J Frailty Sarcopenia Falls. 2018 Sep; 3(3):148-154.JF
The purpose of this review is to examine the correlation between tobacco smoking and hip fractures. The literature that was used for this article was based on studies that investigated not only the direct correlation between smoking and hip fractures but also the effect of smoking on bone mineral density. In general, the incidence of hip fracture was found to be higher in current smokers in both genders. Compared with never smokers, former smokers had a slightly higher risk of hip fracture that was inversely proportional to the cessation span. The relative risk (RR) of hip fracture in current male smokers was higher than the RR for nonsmokers (never and former smokers). In postmenopausal women former and current smoking increased the RR. In premenopausal and postmenopausal women, cessation of smoking decreases the risk of hip fracture. Risk rises with greater cigarette consumption. Risk declines among former smokers, but the benefit is not observed until 10 years after cessation.