Characterization and comparison of Ti/TiO2-NT/SnO2-SbBi, Ti/SnO2-SbBi and BDD anode for the removal of persistent iodinated contrast media (ICM).Chemosphere. 2020 Aug; 253:126701.C
In this study, we investigated the impact of a TiO2 nanotube (NT) interlayer on the electrochemical performance and service life of Sb and Bi-doped SnO2-coatings synthesized on a titanium mesh. Ti/SnO2-SbBi electrode was synthetized by a thermal decomposition method using ionic liquid as a precursor solvent. Ti/TiO2-NT/SnO2-SbBi electrode was obtained by a two-step electrochemical anodization, followed by the same process of thermal decomposition. The synthesized electrodes were electrochemically characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Terephthalic acid (TA) experiments showed that Ti/SnO2-SbBi and Ti/TiO2-NT/SnO2-SbBi electrodes formed somewhat higher amounts of hydroxyl radicals (HO) compared with the mesh boron doped diamond (BDD) anode. Electrochemical oxidation experiments were performed using iodinated contrast media (ICM) as model organic contaminants persistent to oxidation. At current density of 50 A m-2, BDD clearly outperformed the synthesized mixed metal oxide (MMO) electrodes, with 2 to 3-fold higher oxidation rates observed for ICM. However, at 100 and 150 A m-2, Ti/SnO2-SbBi had similar performance to BDD, whereas Ti/TiO2-NT/SnO2-SbBi yielded even higher oxidation rates. Disappearance of the target ICM was followed by up to 80% removal of adsorbable organic iodide (AOI) for all three materials, further demonstrating iodine cleavage and thus oxidative degradation of ICM mediated by HO. The presence of a TiO2 NT interlayer yielded nearly 4-fold increase in anode stability and dislocated the oxygen evolution reaction by +0.2 V. Thus, TiO2 NT interlayer enhanced electrode stability and service life, and the electrocatalytic activity for the degradation of persistent organic contaminants.