Oral spirochetes: Pathogenic mechanisms in periodontal disease.Microb Pathog. 2020 Jul; 144:104193.MP
Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease resulting from infection of biofilm forming bacteria. Several bacterial factors regulate inflammatory response and cause to tissue damage and loss of connection between gingival and tooth. Since bacterial virulence factors and also host immune responses have role, understanding of periodontal disease is complex, in overall we can say that in this disease epithelium is deleted by bacteria. Oral spirochetes are related to periodontitis, among them, Treponema denticola, have been associated with periodontal diseases such as early-onset periodontitis, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, and acute pericoronitis. This review will analyse mechanisms of pathogenesis of spirochetes in periodontitis. Microorganisms cause destruction of gingival tissue by two mechanisms. In one, damage results from the direct action of bacterial enzymes and cytotoxic products of bacterial metabolism. In the other, only bacterial components have role, and tissue destruction is the inevitable side effect of a subverted and exaggerated host inflammatory response to plaque antigens.