Pulmonary manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease.Expert Rev Respir Med. 2020 Apr 27 [Online ahead of print]ER
Introduction: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a widespread condition with a significant impact on the quality of life and healthcare resources. In addition to its gastrointestinal problems, GERD has been linked to a variety of respiratory diseases either as a direct cause, or as a risk factor to the inability to control or worsening of the disease.Areas covered: We performed a literature search in the PubMed database for articles addressing GERD and pulmonary diseases. This review will discuss several different pulmonary diseases affected by GERD ranging from upper airway including chronic cough, vocal cord dysfunction, lower airway diseases including COPD, asthma, and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome to parenchymal diseases such as interstitial lung diseases. The review will discuss several different pulmonary manifestations of GERD and their contribution to patient mortality and morbidity. It will also review the mechanisms leading to these diseases, diagnostic workup, and the role of the available treatment options.Expert opinion: GERD is often overlooked as a cause of respiratory symptoms and illnesses. The literature is sparse on the relation between GERD and respiratory diseases such as interstitial lung diseases and bronchiolitis obliterans including its role in pathogenesis, mechanisms of lung injury, and whether treatment of GERD is effective in managing such illnesses.