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Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD, Dysmorphobia, Dysmorphic Syndrome)

Abstract
Body dysmorphic disorder, or BDD, formally known as dysmorphophobia, is a psychiatric condition defined in the DSM 5 as a preoccupation with a perceived defect or flaw in one’s physical appearance that is either not noticeable or only slightly observable by others. The preoccupation is severe enough to cause marked impairment in social, academic, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In order to meet diagnostic criteria, an individual at some point during the illness must engage in repetitive behaviors, such as excessive mirror checking, camouflaging (i.e., covering up the defect with makeup, clothing, etc.), skin picking, excessive grooming, excessive weight lifting or pervasive mental acts such as comparing one’s appearance to others. These behaviors are typically time-consuming, difficult to control, and are distressing to the individual. On average, these acts will last around 3 to 8 hours per day. The perceived physical flaws most commonly occur on the skin, hair, or nose, but any body part can be involved. Individuals with this disorder, on average, experience preoccupations with 5 to 7 different body parts throughout his or her life.  A subcategory of BDD is muscle dysmorphia, where an individual perceives his or her muscles to be too small or insufficient. Another form of this disorder is BDD by proxy, which involves an individual’s preoccupation with a perceived physical defect in another person.[1] In 1891, Enrico Morselli, an Italian psychiatrist, coined the term dysmorphophobia to describe the condition of people who perceive themselves as flawed but with no apparent physical deformities. This term was derived from the Greek word “dysmorfia,” which means “ugliness.” Cases of this condition have been discussed by Pierre Janet, a French psychologist, who labeled it as “l’obsession de la honte du corps,” which translates to “obsessions of shame of the body.” Sigmund Freud also detailed a case known as “Wolf Man,” a man with an obsession with his nose, which caused him significant social distress. This condition was first recognized in the DSM in 1980 as an atypical somatoform disorder. In 1987, it was classified as a distinct somatoform disorder. DSM 5 now classifies BDD under obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.[2]

Publisher

StatPearls Publishing
Treasure Island (FL)

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32310361

Citation

Nicewicz HR, Boutrouille JF: Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD, Dysmorphobia, Dysmorphic Syndrome). StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing, 2020, Treasure Island (FL).
Nicewicz HR, Boutrouille JF. Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD, Dysmorphobia, Dysmorphic Syndrome). StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
Nicewicz HR & Boutrouille JF. (2020). Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD, Dysmorphobia, Dysmorphic Syndrome). In StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing
Nicewicz HR, Boutrouille JF. Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD, Dysmorphobia, Dysmorphic Syndrome). StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - CHAP T1 - Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD, Dysmorphobia, Dysmorphic Syndrome) BT - StatPearls A1 - Nicewicz,Holly R., AU - Boutrouille,Jacqueline F., Y1 - 2020/01// PY - 2020/4/21/pubmed PY - 2020/4/21/medline PY - 2020/4/21/entrez N2 - Body dysmorphic disorder, or BDD, formally known as dysmorphophobia, is a psychiatric condition defined in the DSM 5 as a preoccupation with a perceived defect or flaw in one’s physical appearance that is either not noticeable or only slightly observable by others. The preoccupation is severe enough to cause marked impairment in social, academic, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In order to meet diagnostic criteria, an individual at some point during the illness must engage in repetitive behaviors, such as excessive mirror checking, camouflaging (i.e., covering up the defect with makeup, clothing, etc.), skin picking, excessive grooming, excessive weight lifting or pervasive mental acts such as comparing one’s appearance to others. These behaviors are typically time-consuming, difficult to control, and are distressing to the individual. On average, these acts will last around 3 to 8 hours per day. The perceived physical flaws most commonly occur on the skin, hair, or nose, but any body part can be involved. Individuals with this disorder, on average, experience preoccupations with 5 to 7 different body parts throughout his or her life.  A subcategory of BDD is muscle dysmorphia, where an individual perceives his or her muscles to be too small or insufficient. Another form of this disorder is BDD by proxy, which involves an individual’s preoccupation with a perceived physical defect in another person.[1] In 1891, Enrico Morselli, an Italian psychiatrist, coined the term dysmorphophobia to describe the condition of people who perceive themselves as flawed but with no apparent physical deformities. This term was derived from the Greek word “dysmorfia,” which means “ugliness.” Cases of this condition have been discussed by Pierre Janet, a French psychologist, who labeled it as “l’obsession de la honte du corps,” which translates to “obsessions of shame of the body.” Sigmund Freud also detailed a case known as “Wolf Man,” a man with an obsession with his nose, which caused him significant social distress. This condition was first recognized in the DSM in 1980 as an atypical somatoform disorder. In 1987, it was classified as a distinct somatoform disorder. DSM 5 now classifies BDD under obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.[2] PB - StatPearls Publishing CY - Treasure Island (FL) UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32310361/StatPearls:_Body_Dysmorphic_Disorder_(BDD,_Dysmorphobia,_Dysmorphic_Syndrome) L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK555901 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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