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Coronavirus Infections in Children Including COVID-19: An Overview of the Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Options in Children.
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 05; 39(5):355-368.PI

Abstract

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a large family of enveloped, single-stranded, zoonotic RNA viruses. Four CoVs commonly circulate among humans: HCoV2-229E, -HKU1, -NL63 and -OC43. However, CoVs can rapidly mutate and recombine leading to novel CoVs that can spread from animals to humans. The novel CoVs severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012. The 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a severe outbreak of disease (termed COVID-19) in China and multiple other countries, threatening to cause a global pandemic. In humans, CoVs mostly cause respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. Clinical manifestations range from a common cold to more severe disease such as bronchitis, pneumonia, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure and even death. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 seem to less commonly affect children and to cause fewer symptoms and less severe disease in this age group compared with adults, and are associated with much lower case-fatality rates. Preliminary evidence suggests children are just as likely as adults to become infected with SARS-CoV-2 but are less likely to be symptomatic or develop severe symptoms. However, the importance of children in transmitting the virus remains uncertain. Children more often have gastrointestinal symptoms compared with adults. Most children with SARS-CoV present with fever, but this is not the case for the other novel CoVs. Many children affected by MERS-CoV are asymptomatic. The majority of children infected by novel CoVs have a documented household contact, often showing symptoms before them. In contrast, adults more often have a nosocomial exposure. In this review, we summarize epidemiologic, clinical and diagnostic findings, as well as treatment and prevention options for common circulating and novel CoVs infections in humans with a focus on infections in children.

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Department of Paediatrics, Fribourg Hospital HFR and Faculty of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland. Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne. Infectious Diseases Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute.Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne. Infectious Diseases Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute. Infectious Diseases Unit, The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32310621

Citation

Zimmermann, Petra, and Nigel Curtis. "Coronavirus Infections in Children Including COVID-19: an Overview of the Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Options in Children." The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 39, no. 5, 2020, pp. 355-368.
Zimmermann P, Curtis N. Coronavirus Infections in Children Including COVID-19: An Overview of the Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Options in Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020;39(5):355-368.
Zimmermann, P., & Curtis, N. (2020). Coronavirus Infections in Children Including COVID-19: An Overview of the Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Options in Children. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 39(5), 355-368. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002660
Zimmermann P, Curtis N. Coronavirus Infections in Children Including COVID-19: an Overview of the Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Options in Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020;39(5):355-368. PubMed PMID: 32310621.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Coronavirus Infections in Children Including COVID-19: An Overview of the Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Options in Children. AU - Zimmermann,Petra, AU - Curtis,Nigel, PY - 2020/4/21/entrez PY - 2020/4/21/pubmed PY - 2020/4/25/medline SP - 355 EP - 368 JF - The Pediatric infectious disease journal JO - Pediatr Infect Dis J VL - 39 IS - 5 N2 - Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a large family of enveloped, single-stranded, zoonotic RNA viruses. Four CoVs commonly circulate among humans: HCoV2-229E, -HKU1, -NL63 and -OC43. However, CoVs can rapidly mutate and recombine leading to novel CoVs that can spread from animals to humans. The novel CoVs severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012. The 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a severe outbreak of disease (termed COVID-19) in China and multiple other countries, threatening to cause a global pandemic. In humans, CoVs mostly cause respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. Clinical manifestations range from a common cold to more severe disease such as bronchitis, pneumonia, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure and even death. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 seem to less commonly affect children and to cause fewer symptoms and less severe disease in this age group compared with adults, and are associated with much lower case-fatality rates. Preliminary evidence suggests children are just as likely as adults to become infected with SARS-CoV-2 but are less likely to be symptomatic or develop severe symptoms. However, the importance of children in transmitting the virus remains uncertain. Children more often have gastrointestinal symptoms compared with adults. Most children with SARS-CoV present with fever, but this is not the case for the other novel CoVs. Many children affected by MERS-CoV are asymptomatic. The majority of children infected by novel CoVs have a documented household contact, often showing symptoms before them. In contrast, adults more often have a nosocomial exposure. In this review, we summarize epidemiologic, clinical and diagnostic findings, as well as treatment and prevention options for common circulating and novel CoVs infections in humans with a focus on infections in children. SN - 1532-0987 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32310621/Coronavirus_Infections_in_Children_Including_COVID_19:_An_Overview_of_the_Epidemiology_Clinical_Features_Diagnosis_Treatment_and_Prevention_Options_in_Children_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -