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Phthalate esters (PAEs) in soil and vegetables in solar greenhouses irrigated with reclaimed water.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Jun; 27(18):22658-22669.ES

Abstract

Phthalate esters (PAEs) in environments have become a public concern due to their harmful impacts on human and environments, and waste/reclaimed water irrigation maybe one of their sources in agricultural soil. A field experiment was setup to analyze the impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on levels of PAEs in vegetables and topsoil in solar greenhouse on the North China Plain during 2015 and 2016. There were 6 varieties of vegetables. For each variety, there were three irrigation treatments, including groundwater irrigation, reclaimed water irrigation, and alternative irrigation with groundwater and reclaimed water (1:1, v/v). The results show that the levels of the 6 PAEs in soil and vegetables varied between 0.73 and 9.48 mg/kg and 1.89 and 6.35 mg/kg, respectively. There were no significant differences for PAE concentrations among these different treatments at each vegetable harvest (p > 0.05). For both soil and vegetable samples, Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the most dominant PAEs, with contents of 0.39-4.43 mg/kg and 0.25-6.31 mg/kg, respectively, contributing12.5-74.60% and 21.24-76.48% of the total 6 PAEs, respectively. The contents of DnBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in topsoil were higher than the suggested allowable values, while the concentration of each individual PAE in topsoil was lower than the suggested cleanup objectives. The levels of 6 PAEs, DEHP, and DnBP in vegetables were below the reference doses. The yields of eggplant, cauliflower, bean, cabbage, cucumber, and carrot were 64.4-67.0 t/ha, 10.9-13.0 t/ha, 12.3-15.1 t/ha, 17.3-17.5 t/ha, 43.9-44.5 t/ha, and 19.0-22.9 t/ha, respectively, and no significant differences were found among these different treatments for each kind of vegetable. The bioaccumulation factors (BCFs) of 6 PAEs in vegetable samples were 0.43-5.79 and the corresponding values for each PAE were 0.00-27.32, respectively. The BCFs of butyl benzyl phthalate were the greatest (with a mean of 9.28), followed by DEHP (with a mean of 3.03) and DMP (with a mean of 1.90). In one word, the reclaimed water in this study did not affect the vegetable yields obviously. PAE levels in soil and vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water were in the acceptable range. Considering the difference of reclaimed water quality of Sewage Treatment Plants in different areas, so more reclaimed water from different areas is needed to assess the impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on PAE contamination in soil and vegetables.

Authors+Show Affiliations

College of Hydraulic Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China. Beijing Water Science and Technology Institute, Beijing, 100048, China.College of Water Conservancy & Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China.Beijing Water Science and Technology Institute, Beijing, 100048, China. Beijing Engineering Technique Research Center for Exploration and Utilization of Non-Conventional Water Resources and Water Use Efficiency, Beijing, 100048, China.Beijing Water Science and Technology Institute, Beijing, 100048, China. Beijing Engineering Technique Research Center for Exploration and Utilization of Non-Conventional Water Resources and Water Use Efficiency, Beijing, 100048, China.Beijing Water Science and Technology Institute, Beijing, 100048, China. Beijing Engineering Technique Research Center for Exploration and Utilization of Non-Conventional Water Resources and Water Use Efficiency, Beijing, 100048, China.Beijing Water Science and Technology Institute, Beijing, 100048, China. Beijing Engineering Technique Research Center for Exploration and Utilization of Non-Conventional Water Resources and Water Use Efficiency, Beijing, 100048, China.Beijing Water Science and Technology Institute, Beijing, 100048, China. liuhonglu@yeah.net. Beijing Engineering Technique Research Center for Exploration and Utilization of Non-Conventional Water Resources and Water Use Efficiency, Beijing, 100048, China. liuhonglu@yeah.net.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32319065

Citation

Li, Yan, et al. "Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Soil and Vegetables in Solar Greenhouses Irrigated With Reclaimed Water." Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 27, no. 18, 2020, pp. 22658-22669.
Li Y, Huang G, Zhang L, et al. Phthalate esters (PAEs) in soil and vegetables in solar greenhouses irrigated with reclaimed water. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020;27(18):22658-22669.
Li, Y., Huang, G., Zhang, L., Gu, H., Lou, C., Zhang, H., & Liu, H. (2020). Phthalate esters (PAEs) in soil and vegetables in solar greenhouses irrigated with reclaimed water. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 27(18), 22658-22669. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08882-2
Li Y, et al. Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Soil and Vegetables in Solar Greenhouses Irrigated With Reclaimed Water. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020;27(18):22658-22669. PubMed PMID: 32319065.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Phthalate esters (PAEs) in soil and vegetables in solar greenhouses irrigated with reclaimed water. AU - Li,Yan, AU - Huang,Guanhua, AU - Zhang,Lei, AU - Gu,Hua, AU - Lou,Chunhua, AU - Zhang,Hang, AU - Liu,Honglu, Y1 - 2020/04/21/ PY - 2020/01/01/received PY - 2020/04/13/accepted PY - 2020/4/23/pubmed PY - 2020/7/11/medline PY - 2020/4/23/entrez KW - Bioaccumulation factors KW - Phthalate esters KW - Reclaimed water KW - Soil KW - Vegetables SP - 22658 EP - 22669 JF - Environmental science and pollution research international JO - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int VL - 27 IS - 18 N2 - Phthalate esters (PAEs) in environments have become a public concern due to their harmful impacts on human and environments, and waste/reclaimed water irrigation maybe one of their sources in agricultural soil. A field experiment was setup to analyze the impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on levels of PAEs in vegetables and topsoil in solar greenhouse on the North China Plain during 2015 and 2016. There were 6 varieties of vegetables. For each variety, there were three irrigation treatments, including groundwater irrigation, reclaimed water irrigation, and alternative irrigation with groundwater and reclaimed water (1:1, v/v). The results show that the levels of the 6 PAEs in soil and vegetables varied between 0.73 and 9.48 mg/kg and 1.89 and 6.35 mg/kg, respectively. There were no significant differences for PAE concentrations among these different treatments at each vegetable harvest (p > 0.05). For both soil and vegetable samples, Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the most dominant PAEs, with contents of 0.39-4.43 mg/kg and 0.25-6.31 mg/kg, respectively, contributing12.5-74.60% and 21.24-76.48% of the total 6 PAEs, respectively. The contents of DnBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in topsoil were higher than the suggested allowable values, while the concentration of each individual PAE in topsoil was lower than the suggested cleanup objectives. The levels of 6 PAEs, DEHP, and DnBP in vegetables were below the reference doses. The yields of eggplant, cauliflower, bean, cabbage, cucumber, and carrot were 64.4-67.0 t/ha, 10.9-13.0 t/ha, 12.3-15.1 t/ha, 17.3-17.5 t/ha, 43.9-44.5 t/ha, and 19.0-22.9 t/ha, respectively, and no significant differences were found among these different treatments for each kind of vegetable. The bioaccumulation factors (BCFs) of 6 PAEs in vegetable samples were 0.43-5.79 and the corresponding values for each PAE were 0.00-27.32, respectively. The BCFs of butyl benzyl phthalate were the greatest (with a mean of 9.28), followed by DEHP (with a mean of 3.03) and DMP (with a mean of 1.90). In one word, the reclaimed water in this study did not affect the vegetable yields obviously. PAE levels in soil and vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water were in the acceptable range. Considering the difference of reclaimed water quality of Sewage Treatment Plants in different areas, so more reclaimed water from different areas is needed to assess the impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on PAE contamination in soil and vegetables. SN - 1614-7499 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32319065/Phthalate_esters__PAEs__in_soil_and_vegetables_in_solar_greenhouses_irrigated_with_reclaimed_water_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08882-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -