Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine for the Prevention or Treatment of COVID-19 in Africa: Caution for Inappropriate Off-label Use in Healthcare Settings.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jun; 102(6):1184-1188.AJ

Abstract

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 pandemic has spread to Africa, where nearly all countries have reported laboratory-confirmed cases of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Although there are ongoing clinical trials of repurposed and investigational antiviral and immune-based therapies, there are as yet no scientifically proven, clinically effective pharmacological treatments for COVID-19. Among the repurposed drugs, the commonly used antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have become the focus of global scientific, media, and political attention despite a lack of randomized clinical trials supporting their efficacy. Chloroquine has been used worldwide for about 75 years and is listed by the WHO as an essential medicine to treat malaria. Hydroxychloroquine is mainly used as a therapy for autoimmune diseases. However, the efficacy and safety of CQ/HCQ for the treatment of COVID-19 remains to be defined. Indiscriminate promotion and widespread use of CQ/HCQ have led to extensive shortages, self-treatment, and fatal overdoses. Shortages and increased market prices leave all countries vulnerable to substandard and falsified medical products, and safety issues are especially concerning for Africa because of its healthcare system limitations. Much needed in Africa is a cross-continental collaborative network for coordinated production, distribution, and post-marketing surveillance aligned to low-cost distribution of any approved COVID-19 drug; this would ideally be piggybacked on existing global aid efforts. Meanwhile, African countries should strongly consider implementing prescription monitoring schemes to ensure that any off-label CQ/HCQ use is appropriate and beneficial during this pandemic.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Infectious Diseases Outpatient Clinic, Cameroon and Infectious Diseases Society of Cameroon, Yaoundé, Douala, Cameroon.Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.Discipline of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.Department of Nursing, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.Department of Paediatrics, University of Cape Coast School of Medical Sciences, Cape Coast, Ghana. International Research Center of Excellence, Institute of Human Virology Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria. Institute of Human Virology and Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.Department of Medical Microbiology and Virology, National Institute of Biomedical Research (INRB), Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Fann, Université Cheik Anta-Diop, Dakar, Sénégal.Unité de Dermatologie et Infectiologie, Unité de Formation et de Recherche, Université Félix Houphouet Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Unit of Infectious Diseases, Treichville University Teaching Hospital, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.University of Kigali School of Public Health, Kigali, Rwanda.Erasme Hospital, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium.National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, University College London Hospitals, London, United Kingdom. Department of Infection, Division of Infection and Immunity, Centre for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.Center for Infectious Diseases, at Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa. Department of International Health and Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland. University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health and Center for Global Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32323646

Citation

Abena, Pascale M., et al. "Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine for the Prevention or Treatment of COVID-19 in Africa: Caution for Inappropriate Off-label Use in Healthcare Settings." The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 102, no. 6, 2020, pp. 1184-1188.
Abena PM, Decloedt EH, Bottieau E, et al. Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine for the Prevention or Treatment of COVID-19 in Africa: Caution for Inappropriate Off-label Use in Healthcare Settings. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;102(6):1184-1188.
Abena, P. M., Decloedt, E. H., Bottieau, E., Suleman, F., Adejumo, P., Sam-Agudu, N. A., Muyembe TamFum, J. J., Seydi, M., Eholie, S. P., Mills, E. J., Kallay, O., Zumla, A., & Nachega, J. B. (2020). Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine for the Prevention or Treatment of COVID-19 in Africa: Caution for Inappropriate Off-label Use in Healthcare Settings. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 102(6), 1184-1188. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0290
Abena PM, et al. Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine for the Prevention or Treatment of COVID-19 in Africa: Caution for Inappropriate Off-label Use in Healthcare Settings. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;102(6):1184-1188. PubMed PMID: 32323646.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine for the Prevention or Treatment of COVID-19 in Africa: Caution for Inappropriate Off-label Use in Healthcare Settings. AU - Abena,Pascale M, AU - Decloedt,Eric H, AU - Bottieau,Emmanuel, AU - Suleman,Fatima, AU - Adejumo,Prisca, AU - Sam-Agudu,Nadia A, AU - Muyembe TamFum,Jean-Jacques, AU - Seydi,Moussa, AU - Eholie,Serge P, AU - Mills,Edward J, AU - Kallay,Oscar, AU - Zumla,Alimuddin, AU - Nachega,Jean B, PY - 2020/4/24/pubmed PY - 2020/6/17/medline PY - 2020/4/24/entrez SP - 1184 EP - 1188 JF - The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene JO - Am J Trop Med Hyg VL - 102 IS - 6 N2 - The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 pandemic has spread to Africa, where nearly all countries have reported laboratory-confirmed cases of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Although there are ongoing clinical trials of repurposed and investigational antiviral and immune-based therapies, there are as yet no scientifically proven, clinically effective pharmacological treatments for COVID-19. Among the repurposed drugs, the commonly used antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have become the focus of global scientific, media, and political attention despite a lack of randomized clinical trials supporting their efficacy. Chloroquine has been used worldwide for about 75 years and is listed by the WHO as an essential medicine to treat malaria. Hydroxychloroquine is mainly used as a therapy for autoimmune diseases. However, the efficacy and safety of CQ/HCQ for the treatment of COVID-19 remains to be defined. Indiscriminate promotion and widespread use of CQ/HCQ have led to extensive shortages, self-treatment, and fatal overdoses. Shortages and increased market prices leave all countries vulnerable to substandard and falsified medical products, and safety issues are especially concerning for Africa because of its healthcare system limitations. Much needed in Africa is a cross-continental collaborative network for coordinated production, distribution, and post-marketing surveillance aligned to low-cost distribution of any approved COVID-19 drug; this would ideally be piggybacked on existing global aid efforts. Meanwhile, African countries should strongly consider implementing prescription monitoring schemes to ensure that any off-label CQ/HCQ use is appropriate and beneficial during this pandemic. SN - 1476-1645 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32323646/Chloroquine_and_Hydroxychloroquine_for_the_Prevention_or_Treatment_of_COVID_19_in_Africa:_Caution_for_Inappropriate_Off_label_Use_in_Healthcare_Settings_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -