Point-of-care ultrasound in pediatric anesthesia: perioperative considerations.Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2020 Jun; 33(3):343-353.CO
PURPOSE OF REVIEW
To review the perioperative applications of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS).
The role of point-of-care ultrasonography for perioperative care is expanding with respect to perioperative application. The imaging approach can complement the physical exam and provide additional information for decision-making in pediatric perioperative medicine. This review will focus on applications in the following organ systems: airway, cardiac, pulmonary and gastric. Specifically, POCUS of the airway has been used to optimize endotracheal tube depth, aid in tube size selection and predict difficulty with laryngoscopy and intubation. Lung POCUS has been used to assess for causes hypoxemia as well as to optimize ventilatory mechanics. Cardiac POCUS has been used for assessment of hemodynamics, valvular and ventricular function. Gastric ultrasound has emerged as an evaluative mechanism of gastric content in the setting of fasting as well as to confirm placement of gastric tubes. The applications of POCUS in the perioperative setting continue to evolve as a reliable diagnostic tool that can assist in timely diagnosis, improve procedural safety and has the potential to improve patient outcomes.
The utility of perioperative POCUS has been well demonstrated, specifically for examination of the airway, stomach and cardiopulmonary system. It is advisable for the novice sonographer to perform POCUS within the guidelines set by the American Society of Echocardiography regarding basic POCUS. As with all diagnostic modalities, understanding the limitations of ultrasound and POCUS as well as continuous self-assessment is crucial.