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Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Transmission in a Skilled Nursing Facility.
N Engl J Med. 2020 05 28; 382(22):2081-2090.NEJM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can spread rapidly within skilled nursing facilities. After identification of a case of Covid-19 in a skilled nursing facility, we assessed transmission and evaluated the adequacy of symptom-based screening to identify infections in residents.

METHODS

We conducted two serial point-prevalence surveys, 1 week apart, in which assenting residents of the facility underwent nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal testing for SARS-CoV-2, including real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), viral culture, and sequencing. Symptoms that had been present during the preceding 14 days were recorded. Asymptomatic residents who tested positive were reassessed 7 days later. Residents with SARS-CoV-2 infection were categorized as symptomatic with typical symptoms (fever, cough, or shortness of breath), symptomatic with only atypical symptoms, presymptomatic, or asymptomatic.

RESULTS

Twenty-three days after the first positive test result in a resident at this skilled nursing facility, 57 of 89 residents (64%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among 76 residents who participated in point-prevalence surveys, 48 (63%) tested positive. Of these 48 residents, 27 (56%) were asymptomatic at the time of testing; 24 subsequently developed symptoms (median time to onset, 4 days). Samples from these 24 presymptomatic residents had a median rRT-PCR cycle threshold value of 23.1, and viable virus was recovered from 17 residents. As of April 3, of the 57 residents with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 11 had been hospitalized (3 in the intensive care unit) and 15 had died (mortality, 26%). Of the 34 residents whose specimens were sequenced, 27 (79%) had sequences that fit into two clusters with a difference of one nucleotide.

CONCLUSIONS

Rapid and widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was demonstrated in this skilled nursing facility. More than half of residents with positive test results were asymptomatic at the time of testing and most likely contributed to transmission. Infection-control strategies focused solely on symptomatic residents were not sufficient to prevent transmission after SARS-CoV-2 introduction into this facility.

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Emergency Response (M.M.A., K.M.H., S.C.R., A.K., A.J., J.R.J., J.T., K.S., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D., J. Harney, Z.C., J.M.B., M.M., P.P., C.M.C., H.P.M.L., N.T., S. Tong, A.T., Y.T., A.U., J. Harcourt, N.D.S., T.A.C., M.A.H., J.A.J.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (M.M.A., A.K., A.J., J.T., A.C.B., L.P.O., S. Tanwar, J.W.D.) and the Laboratory Leadership Service (J.R.J., C.M.C.), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - all in Atlanta; and Public Health - Seattle & King County (S.C., C.B.-S., L.C.P., M.K., J.L., J.S.D.) and the University of Washington, Department of Medicine (J.S.D.), Seattle, the Washington State Public Health Laboratory, Shoreline (J.S.D.), and the Washington State Department of Health, Tumwater (P.M.) - all in Washington.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32329971

Citation

Arons, Melissa M., et al. "Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Transmission in a Skilled Nursing Facility." The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 382, no. 22, 2020, pp. 2081-2090.
Arons MM, Hatfield KM, Reddy SC, et al. Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Transmission in a Skilled Nursing Facility. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(22):2081-2090.
Arons, M. M., Hatfield, K. M., Reddy, S. C., Kimball, A., James, A., Jacobs, J. R., Taylor, J., Spicer, K., Bardossy, A. C., Oakley, L. P., Tanwar, S., Dyal, J. W., Harney, J., Chisty, Z., Bell, J. M., Methner, M., Paul, P., Carlson, C. M., McLaughlin, H. P., ... Jernigan, J. A. (2020). Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Transmission in a Skilled Nursing Facility. The New England Journal of Medicine, 382(22), 2081-2090. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2008457
Arons MM, et al. Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Transmission in a Skilled Nursing Facility. N Engl J Med. 2020 05 28;382(22):2081-2090. PubMed PMID: 32329971.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Transmission in a Skilled Nursing Facility. AU - Arons,Melissa M, AU - Hatfield,Kelly M, AU - Reddy,Sujan C, AU - Kimball,Anne, AU - James,Allison, AU - Jacobs,Jesica R, AU - Taylor,Joanne, AU - Spicer,Kevin, AU - Bardossy,Ana C, AU - Oakley,Lisa P, AU - Tanwar,Sukarma, AU - Dyal,Jonathan W, AU - Harney,Josh, AU - Chisty,Zeshan, AU - Bell,Jeneita M, AU - Methner,Mark, AU - Paul,Prabasaj, AU - Carlson,Christina M, AU - McLaughlin,Heather P, AU - Thornburg,Natalie, AU - Tong,Suxiang, AU - Tamin,Azaibi, AU - Tao,Ying, AU - Uehara,Anna, AU - Harcourt,Jennifer, AU - Clark,Shauna, AU - Brostrom-Smith,Claire, AU - Page,Libby C, AU - Kay,Meagan, AU - Lewis,James, AU - Montgomery,Patty, AU - Stone,Nimalie D, AU - Clark,Thomas A, AU - Honein,Margaret A, AU - Duchin,Jeffrey S, AU - Jernigan,John A, AU - ,, Y1 - 2020/04/24/ PY - 2020/4/25/pubmed PY - 2020/6/2/medline PY - 2020/4/25/entrez SP - 2081 EP - 2090 JF - The New England journal of medicine JO - N Engl J Med VL - 382 IS - 22 N2 - BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can spread rapidly within skilled nursing facilities. After identification of a case of Covid-19 in a skilled nursing facility, we assessed transmission and evaluated the adequacy of symptom-based screening to identify infections in residents. METHODS: We conducted two serial point-prevalence surveys, 1 week apart, in which assenting residents of the facility underwent nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal testing for SARS-CoV-2, including real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), viral culture, and sequencing. Symptoms that had been present during the preceding 14 days were recorded. Asymptomatic residents who tested positive were reassessed 7 days later. Residents with SARS-CoV-2 infection were categorized as symptomatic with typical symptoms (fever, cough, or shortness of breath), symptomatic with only atypical symptoms, presymptomatic, or asymptomatic. RESULTS: Twenty-three days after the first positive test result in a resident at this skilled nursing facility, 57 of 89 residents (64%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among 76 residents who participated in point-prevalence surveys, 48 (63%) tested positive. Of these 48 residents, 27 (56%) were asymptomatic at the time of testing; 24 subsequently developed symptoms (median time to onset, 4 days). Samples from these 24 presymptomatic residents had a median rRT-PCR cycle threshold value of 23.1, and viable virus was recovered from 17 residents. As of April 3, of the 57 residents with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 11 had been hospitalized (3 in the intensive care unit) and 15 had died (mortality, 26%). Of the 34 residents whose specimens were sequenced, 27 (79%) had sequences that fit into two clusters with a difference of one nucleotide. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid and widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was demonstrated in this skilled nursing facility. More than half of residents with positive test results were asymptomatic at the time of testing and most likely contributed to transmission. Infection-control strategies focused solely on symptomatic residents were not sufficient to prevent transmission after SARS-CoV-2 introduction into this facility. SN - 1533-4406 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32329971/Presymptomatic_SARS_CoV_2_Infections_and_Transmission_in_a_Skilled_Nursing_Facility_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -