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Acrylamide formation in biscuits made of different wholegrain flours depending on their free asparagine content and baking conditions.
Food Res Int. 2020 06; 132:109109.FR

Abstract

Due to a high content of bioactive compounds with beneficial health effects, wholegrain flours of different cereals have been extensively used in the confectionery industry. However, according to our study, cereal species and their varieties have different potential for the formation of acrylamide in biscuits. In this study, wholegrain flours of eight genotypes of small grain cereals (bread wheat, durum wheat, soft wheat, hard wheat, triticale, rye, hulless barley and hulless oat) and four genotypes of maize (white-, yellow- and red-coloured standard seeded maize, and blue-coloured popping maize) were used to prepare biscuits. The biscuits were baked at 180 °C for 7, 10 and 13 min. At 180 °C, acrylamide was detected at all baking times, reaching a final concentration of 72.3 up to 861.7 μg/kg after 13 min of baking in refined bread wheat-based biscuits and hulless oat-based biscuits, respectively. Data indicated that acrylamide in biscuits could not exactly correspond to free asparagine in flour. However, hulless oat, durum wheat and rye flour with the highest content of free asparagine of 859.8, 603.2 and 530.3 mg/kg, respectively, generated most acrylamide in biscuits baked for 13 min. The lowest content of acrylamide was found in biscuits prepared from refined bread wheat flour and wholegrain red maize flour that also contained the lowest content of free asparagine. After baking for 7, 10 and 13 min, the content of acrylamide in these samples was 17.9 and 24.4 μg/kg, 51.9 and 28.7 μg/kg and 72.3 and 95.2 μg/kg, respectively. The results suggest that the use of cereal flours low in free asparagine can be an effective strategy for acrylamide mitigation in biscuits, together with the use of lower thermal load during baking.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Maize Research Institute, Serbia; Laboratory of Food Technology and Biochemistry, Serbia.Food Quality and Safety (FoQuS) Research Group, Department of Food Engineering, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey.Maize Research Institute, Serbia; Breeding Department, Slobodana Bajića 1, 11185 Belgrad-Zemun, Serbia.Maize Research Institute, Serbia; Breeding Department, Slobodana Bajića 1, 11185 Belgrad-Zemun, Serbia.Food Quality and Safety (FoQuS) Research Group, Department of Food Engineering, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address: vgokmen@hacettepe.edu.tr.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32331630

Citation

Žilić, Slađana, et al. "Acrylamide Formation in Biscuits Made of Different Wholegrain Flours Depending On Their Free Asparagine Content and Baking Conditions." Food Research International (Ottawa, Ont.), vol. 132, 2020, p. 109109.
Žilić S, Aktağ IG, Dodig D, et al. Acrylamide formation in biscuits made of different wholegrain flours depending on their free asparagine content and baking conditions. Food Res Int. 2020;132:109109.
Žilić, S., Aktağ, I. G., Dodig, D., Filipović, M., & Gökmen, V. (2020). Acrylamide formation in biscuits made of different wholegrain flours depending on their free asparagine content and baking conditions. Food Research International (Ottawa, Ont.), 132, 109109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109109
Žilić S, et al. Acrylamide Formation in Biscuits Made of Different Wholegrain Flours Depending On Their Free Asparagine Content and Baking Conditions. Food Res Int. 2020;132:109109. PubMed PMID: 32331630.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Acrylamide formation in biscuits made of different wholegrain flours depending on their free asparagine content and baking conditions. AU - Žilić,Slađana, AU - Aktağ,Işıl Gürsul, AU - Dodig,Dejan, AU - Filipović,Milomir, AU - Gökmen,Vural, Y1 - 2020/02/19/ PY - 2019/09/20/received PY - 2020/02/10/revised PY - 2020/02/18/accepted PY - 2020/4/26/entrez PY - 2020/4/26/pubmed PY - 2021/3/23/medline KW - Acrylamide KW - Biscuits KW - Cereal flours KW - Free asparagine KW - Whole grains SP - 109109 EP - 109109 JF - Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.) JO - Food Res Int VL - 132 N2 - Due to a high content of bioactive compounds with beneficial health effects, wholegrain flours of different cereals have been extensively used in the confectionery industry. However, according to our study, cereal species and their varieties have different potential for the formation of acrylamide in biscuits. In this study, wholegrain flours of eight genotypes of small grain cereals (bread wheat, durum wheat, soft wheat, hard wheat, triticale, rye, hulless barley and hulless oat) and four genotypes of maize (white-, yellow- and red-coloured standard seeded maize, and blue-coloured popping maize) were used to prepare biscuits. The biscuits were baked at 180 °C for 7, 10 and 13 min. At 180 °C, acrylamide was detected at all baking times, reaching a final concentration of 72.3 up to 861.7 μg/kg after 13 min of baking in refined bread wheat-based biscuits and hulless oat-based biscuits, respectively. Data indicated that acrylamide in biscuits could not exactly correspond to free asparagine in flour. However, hulless oat, durum wheat and rye flour with the highest content of free asparagine of 859.8, 603.2 and 530.3 mg/kg, respectively, generated most acrylamide in biscuits baked for 13 min. The lowest content of acrylamide was found in biscuits prepared from refined bread wheat flour and wholegrain red maize flour that also contained the lowest content of free asparagine. After baking for 7, 10 and 13 min, the content of acrylamide in these samples was 17.9 and 24.4 μg/kg, 51.9 and 28.7 μg/kg and 72.3 and 95.2 μg/kg, respectively. The results suggest that the use of cereal flours low in free asparagine can be an effective strategy for acrylamide mitigation in biscuits, together with the use of lower thermal load during baking. SN - 1873-7145 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32331630/Acrylamide_formation_in_biscuits_made_of_different_wholegrain_flours_depending_on_their_free_asparagine_content_and_baking_conditions_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -