Acrylamide formation in biscuits made of different wholegrain flours depending on their free asparagine content and baking conditions.Food Res Int. 2020 06; 132:109109.FR
Due to a high content of bioactive compounds with beneficial health effects, wholegrain flours of different cereals have been extensively used in the confectionery industry. However, according to our study, cereal species and their varieties have different potential for the formation of acrylamide in biscuits. In this study, wholegrain flours of eight genotypes of small grain cereals (bread wheat, durum wheat, soft wheat, hard wheat, triticale, rye, hulless barley and hulless oat) and four genotypes of maize (white-, yellow- and red-coloured standard seeded maize, and blue-coloured popping maize) were used to prepare biscuits. The biscuits were baked at 180 °C for 7, 10 and 13 min. At 180 °C, acrylamide was detected at all baking times, reaching a final concentration of 72.3 up to 861.7 μg/kg after 13 min of baking in refined bread wheat-based biscuits and hulless oat-based biscuits, respectively. Data indicated that acrylamide in biscuits could not exactly correspond to free asparagine in flour. However, hulless oat, durum wheat and rye flour with the highest content of free asparagine of 859.8, 603.2 and 530.3 mg/kg, respectively, generated most acrylamide in biscuits baked for 13 min. The lowest content of acrylamide was found in biscuits prepared from refined bread wheat flour and wholegrain red maize flour that also contained the lowest content of free asparagine. After baking for 7, 10 and 13 min, the content of acrylamide in these samples was 17.9 and 24.4 μg/kg, 51.9 and 28.7 μg/kg and 72.3 and 95.2 μg/kg, respectively. The results suggest that the use of cereal flours low in free asparagine can be an effective strategy for acrylamide mitigation in biscuits, together with the use of lower thermal load during baking.