Adult-onset congenital central hypoventilation syndrome due to PHOX2B mutation.Acta Neurol Belg. 2021 Feb; 121(1):23-35.AN
Central hypoventilation in adult patients is a rare life-threatening condition characterised by the loss of automatic breathing, more pronounced during sleep. In most cases, it is secondary to a brainstem lesion or to a primary pulmonary, cardiac or neuromuscular disease. More rarely, it can be a manifestation of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). We here describe a 25-year-old woman with severe central hypoventilation triggered by analgesics. Genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of adult-onset CCHS caused by a heterozygous de novo poly-alanine repeat expansion of the PHOX2B gene. She was treated with nocturnal non-invasive ventilation. We reviewed the literature and found 21 genetically confirmed adult-onset CCHS cases. Because of the risk of deleterious respiratory complications, adult-onset CCHS is an important differential diagnosis in patients with central hypoventilation.