Toxicity evaluation of pesticide chlorpyrifos in male Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica).Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Jul; 27(20):25353-25362.ES
In the current study, chlorpyrifos was used as a test chemical to evaluate its possible toxicological effect on birds. A total of 45 adult male Japanese quails were divided into five groups (A to E). Each group, containing 9 birds was further divided into 3 sub-groups (containing 3 birds each). Group A served as control, while all other groups and sub-groups were exposed to selected pesticide for different trial periods. Chlorpyrifos sub-lethal doses were orally administered daily at the rate of 3, 6, 9, and 12 mg/kg body weight per day to group B, C, D, and E, respectively. Birds were kept under observation for behavioral changes throughout the trial periods. Clinical signs, histological alterations, genotoxicity, and blood biochemical alterations were recorded after each 15-day trial. Mild to moderate clinical signs like staggering gait, tremors, diarrhea, dullness, less frequency of crowing, and decrease foam production were observed in group D and E throughout the study. The changes in the body weight gain and blood biochemical parameters among different groups at a given trial period were insignificant. The appearance of micronuclei in group E birds was more significant, indicating that nucleus damage was dose-dependent while to lesser extent duration-dependent. The comet assay showed significant dose- and duration-dependent DNA damage among various groups. In comparison with control group, extensive histological degenerative alterations in the liver, testes, and kidneys were observed in birds of group D and E, where mild to severe alteration like congestion, vacuolation, necrosis, apoptosis, karyopyknosis, extensive degeneration, and alteration in many cellular structures were noticeable.