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Free and Glucuronide Urine Cannabinoids after Controlled Smoked, Vaporized and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users.
J Anal Toxicol. 2020 Oct 12; 44(7):651-660.JA

Abstract

Total urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) concentrations are generally reported following cannabis administration. Few data are available for glucuronide and minor cannabinoid metabolite concentrations. All urine specimens from 11 frequent and 9 occasional cannabis users were analyzed for 11 cannabinoids for ~85 h by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry following controlled smoked, vaporized or oral 50.6 mg Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject dosing design. No cannabidiol, cannabinol, cannabigerol, tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), THC, 11-OH-THC and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid were detected in urine. Median THCCOOH-glucuronide maximum concentrations (Cmax) following smoked, vaporized and oral routes were 68.0, 26.7 and 360 μg/L for occasional and 378, 248 and 485 μg/L for frequent users, respectively. Median time to specific gravity-normalized Cmax (Tmax) was 5.1-7.9 h for all routes and all users. Median Cmax for THCCOOH, THC-glucuronide and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-THCV (THCVCOOH) were <7.5% of THCCOOH-glucuronide Cmax concentrations. Only THC-glucuronide mean Tmax differed between routes and groups, and was often present only in occasional users' first urine void. Multiple THCCOOH-glucuronide and THCCOOH peaks were observed. We also evaluated these urinary data with published models for determining recency of cannabis use. These urinary cannabinoid marker concentrations from occasional and frequent cannabis users following three routes of administration provide a scientific database to assess single urine concentrations in cannabis monitoring programs. New target analytes (CBD, CBN, CBG, THCV and phase II metabolites) were not found in urine. The results are important to officials in drug treatment, workplace and criminal justice drug monitoring programs, as well as policy makers with responsibility for cannabis regulations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. Currently at The Lambert Center for the Study of Medicinal Cannabis and Hemp, Institute on Emerging Health Professions, Thomas Jefferson University, 683 Shore Road, Severna, Park MD 21146, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. Currently at Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Laboratory IC42, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. Currently at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. Currently at Cepheid AB, Inc., Rontgenvägen 5, 171 54, Solna, Sweden.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. Currently at Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, 14225 Newbrook Dr., Chantilly, VA 20151.Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224.Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Tobacco and Volatiles Branch, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Atlanta, GA 30341.Office of the Clinical Director, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Blvd., Baltimore, MD 21224.Huestis & Smith Toxicology, LLC, 683 Shore Road, Severna Park, MD 21146.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32369162

Citation

Huestis, Marilyn A., et al. "Free and Glucuronide Urine Cannabinoids After Controlled Smoked, Vaporized and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users." Journal of Analytical Toxicology, vol. 44, no. 7, 2020, pp. 651-660.
Huestis MA, Sempio C, Newmeyer MN, et al. Free and Glucuronide Urine Cannabinoids after Controlled Smoked, Vaporized and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users. J Anal Toxicol. 2020;44(7):651-660.
Huestis, M. A., Sempio, C., Newmeyer, M. N., Andersson, M., Barnes, A. J., Abulseoud, O. A., Blount, B. C., Schroeder, J., & Smith, M. L. (2020). Free and Glucuronide Urine Cannabinoids after Controlled Smoked, Vaporized and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 44(7), 651-660. https://doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkaa046
Huestis MA, et al. Free and Glucuronide Urine Cannabinoids After Controlled Smoked, Vaporized and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users. J Anal Toxicol. 2020 Oct 12;44(7):651-660. PubMed PMID: 32369162.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Free and Glucuronide Urine Cannabinoids after Controlled Smoked, Vaporized and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users. AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, AU - Sempio,Cristina, AU - Newmeyer,Matthew N, AU - Andersson,Maria, AU - Barnes,Allan J, AU - Abulseoud,Osama A, AU - Blount,Benjamin C, AU - Schroeder,Jennifer, AU - Smith,Michael L, PY - 2020/01/20/received PY - 2020/04/15/revised PY - 2020/04/21/accepted PY - 2020/5/6/pubmed PY - 2020/10/21/medline PY - 2020/5/6/entrez SP - 651 EP - 660 JF - Journal of analytical toxicology JO - J Anal Toxicol VL - 44 IS - 7 N2 - Total urinary 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) concentrations are generally reported following cannabis administration. Few data are available for glucuronide and minor cannabinoid metabolite concentrations. All urine specimens from 11 frequent and 9 occasional cannabis users were analyzed for 11 cannabinoids for ~85 h by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry following controlled smoked, vaporized or oral 50.6 mg Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject dosing design. No cannabidiol, cannabinol, cannabigerol, tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), THC, 11-OH-THC and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid were detected in urine. Median THCCOOH-glucuronide maximum concentrations (Cmax) following smoked, vaporized and oral routes were 68.0, 26.7 and 360 μg/L for occasional and 378, 248 and 485 μg/L for frequent users, respectively. Median time to specific gravity-normalized Cmax (Tmax) was 5.1-7.9 h for all routes and all users. Median Cmax for THCCOOH, THC-glucuronide and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-THCV (THCVCOOH) were <7.5% of THCCOOH-glucuronide Cmax concentrations. Only THC-glucuronide mean Tmax differed between routes and groups, and was often present only in occasional users' first urine void. Multiple THCCOOH-glucuronide and THCCOOH peaks were observed. We also evaluated these urinary data with published models for determining recency of cannabis use. These urinary cannabinoid marker concentrations from occasional and frequent cannabis users following three routes of administration provide a scientific database to assess single urine concentrations in cannabis monitoring programs. New target analytes (CBD, CBN, CBG, THCV and phase II metabolites) were not found in urine. The results are important to officials in drug treatment, workplace and criminal justice drug monitoring programs, as well as policy makers with responsibility for cannabis regulations. SN - 1945-2403 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32369162/Free_and_Glucuronide_Urine_Cannabinoids_after_Controlled_Smoked_Vaporized_and_Oral_Cannabis_Administration_in_Frequent_and_Occasional_Cannabis_Users_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jat/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jat/bkaa046 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -