Ameliorative effect of 2-methoxyestradiol on radiation-induced lung injury.Life Sci. 2020 Aug 15; 255:117743.LS
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a serious complication of radiation therapy. Development of an effective drug that selectively protects normal lung tissues and sensitizes tumor cells to radiotherapy is an unmet need. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) possesses polypharmacological properties, which qualifies it as an effective radioprotector. Our aim is to explore the potential protective effects of 2ME2 against early and late stages of RILI and the underlying mechanisms.
BALB/c mice were either treated with 2ME2 (50 mg/kg/day i.p., for 4 weeks); or received a single dose of 10 Gy ionizing radiation (IR) delivered to the lungs; or 10 Gy IR and 2ME2. Animal survival and pulmonary functions were evaluated. Immune-phenotyping of alveolar macrophages (AM) in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) was determined by flow cytometry. ELISA was used to evaluate the expression levels of TNF-α, TGF-β; and IL-10 in BALF. Lung tissues were used for histopathological examination or immunofluorescence staining for CD68 (pan-macrophage marker), Arginase-1 (Arg1, M2-specific marker), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, M1-specific marker) and HIF-1α. VEGF and γH2AX expression in lung tissues were detected by western blot.
The results demonstrated that 2ME2 improved the survival, lung functions and histopathological parameters of irradiated mice. Additionally, it attenuated the radiation-induced AM polarization and reduced the pneumonitis and fibrosis markers in lung tissues. Significant reduction of TNF-α and TGF-β with concomitant increase in IL-10 concentrations were observed. Moreover, the expression of HIF-1α, VEGF and γH2AX declined.
2ME2 is a promising radioprotectant with fewer anticipated side effects.