Proportionate Postnatal Growth in Preterm Neonates on Expressed Breast Milk Feeding With Selected Fortification.Nutr Clin Pract. 2020 Aug; 35(4):715-723.NC
Preterm neonates not fed an exclusive human-milk diet in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) show disproportionate postnatal growth. There are scant data on postnatal growth in neonates from India fed an exclusive expressed breast milk (EBM) diet. This study describes the postnatal changes in weight, length, and head circumference in preterm neonates given EBM with selected fortification.
The study had a prospective observational design. Exclusive EBM feeding, early initiation, and standardized progression of feeds was followed. Fortification of breast milk with human milk fortifier (HMF) or liquid calcium phosphate and multivitamins (CALVIT) or hindmilk (HM) was done based on the gestational age. Monitoring for weight, length, and head circumference was done from admission to discharge.
Ninety-three preterm neonates were included in the study, of which 34 (36.6%) were small for gestational age. Thirty-two (34.3%) neonates received EBM with HMF, 35 (35.7%) received EBM fortified with CALVIT and 26 (28%) neonates received HM fortification. There was a significant difference in the change in z-scores from birth to discharge for the weight, length, and head circumference (P = .001). The mean increase in daily weight ranged from 8.8 to 9.5 g/d, whereas weekly change in length was 0.8-0.9 cm/wk, and head circumference was 0.7 cm/wk.
Postnatal growth of preterm neonates during NICU admission on exclusive EBM feeding with selected fortification resulted in a proportionate increase in weight, length, and head circumference.