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Red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation in 17 dogs: clinical signs, coagulation changes, haematological abnormalities, venom antigen levels and outcomes following treatment with a tiger-brown snake antivenom.
Aust Vet J. 2020 Jul; 98(7):319-325.AV

Abstract

BACKGROUND

This report describes 17 cases of red-bellied black snake envenomation (RBBS; Pseudechis porphyriacus) in dogs in south-eastern Queensland. Patients were prospectively enrolled for the treatment with a new tiger-brown snake antivenom 8000 units, (TBAV; Padula Serums Pty Ltd, VIC, Australia).

CASE REPORT

Clinical diagnosis of RBBS envenomation was made by either snake venom detection kit, snake identification using scale counting, or owner observed dog-snake interaction in patients with clinical signs of envenomation. An RBBS venom antigen sandwich ELISA was used to retrospectively quantify venom levels in frozen serum and urine. Mechanical ventilation was required in 11% (2/17) patients, whole blood transfusion in 12% (2/17), tissue swelling at the bite site occurred in 53% (9/17) and facial palsy in 12% (2/17). One dog was euthanised, and overall, 94% (16/17) survived to hospital discharge. Clinicopathological changes pre-TBAV included variable haemolysis, increased CK, pigmenturia and mildly prolonged active clotting time with a median of 134 s (n = 13, range 91-206 s). Haematological profiles post envenomation revealed anaemia (6/6) and spherocytosis (5/5), which resolved without the use of corticosteroids. Pre-TBAV, median RBBS venom antigen concentration was 22.6 ng/mL (n = 15, range 2-128) in serum and 58 ng/mL (range 1-452) in urine; RBBS venom antigen was undetectable in serum post-TBAV in all patients.

CONCLUSION

Some RBBS envenomed dogs required, critical care including mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, additional antivenom and prolonged hospitalisation. TBAV was effective with excellent prognosis despite stated specificity for tiger and brown snake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Pet Intensive Care Unit, Underwood, Queensland, Australia.Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Padula Serums Pty Ltd, Bairnsdale, Victoria, Australia.Pet Intensive Care Unit, Underwood, Queensland, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Case Reports

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32390184

Citation

Finney, E R., et al. "Red-bellied Black Snake (Pseudechis Porphyriacus) Envenomation in 17 Dogs: Clinical Signs, Coagulation Changes, Haematological Abnormalities, Venom Antigen Levels and Outcomes Following Treatment With a Tiger-brown Snake Antivenom." Australian Veterinary Journal, vol. 98, no. 7, 2020, pp. 319-325.
Finney ER, Padula AM, Leister EM. Red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation in 17 dogs: clinical signs, coagulation changes, haematological abnormalities, venom antigen levels and outcomes following treatment with a tiger-brown snake antivenom. Aust Vet J. 2020;98(7):319-325.
Finney, E. R., Padula, A. M., & Leister, E. M. (2020). Red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation in 17 dogs: clinical signs, coagulation changes, haematological abnormalities, venom antigen levels and outcomes following treatment with a tiger-brown snake antivenom. Australian Veterinary Journal, 98(7), 319-325. https://doi.org/10.1111/avj.12953
Finney ER, Padula AM, Leister EM. Red-bellied Black Snake (Pseudechis Porphyriacus) Envenomation in 17 Dogs: Clinical Signs, Coagulation Changes, Haematological Abnormalities, Venom Antigen Levels and Outcomes Following Treatment With a Tiger-brown Snake Antivenom. Aust Vet J. 2020;98(7):319-325. PubMed PMID: 32390184.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation in 17 dogs: clinical signs, coagulation changes, haematological abnormalities, venom antigen levels and outcomes following treatment with a tiger-brown snake antivenom. AU - Finney,E R, AU - Padula,A M, AU - Leister,E M, Y1 - 2020/05/10/ PY - 2019/10/28/received PY - 2020/04/07/revised PY - 2020/04/11/accepted PY - 2020/5/12/pubmed PY - 2020/7/16/medline PY - 2020/5/12/entrez KW - Pseudechis porphyriacus KW - enzyme immunoassay KW - red-bellied black snake KW - snake antivenom KW - snake venom KW - snakebite SP - 319 EP - 325 JF - Australian veterinary journal JO - Aust. Vet. J. VL - 98 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND: This report describes 17 cases of red-bellied black snake envenomation (RBBS; Pseudechis porphyriacus) in dogs in south-eastern Queensland. Patients were prospectively enrolled for the treatment with a new tiger-brown snake antivenom 8000 units, (TBAV; Padula Serums Pty Ltd, VIC, Australia). CASE REPORT: Clinical diagnosis of RBBS envenomation was made by either snake venom detection kit, snake identification using scale counting, or owner observed dog-snake interaction in patients with clinical signs of envenomation. An RBBS venom antigen sandwich ELISA was used to retrospectively quantify venom levels in frozen serum and urine. Mechanical ventilation was required in 11% (2/17) patients, whole blood transfusion in 12% (2/17), tissue swelling at the bite site occurred in 53% (9/17) and facial palsy in 12% (2/17). One dog was euthanised, and overall, 94% (16/17) survived to hospital discharge. Clinicopathological changes pre-TBAV included variable haemolysis, increased CK, pigmenturia and mildly prolonged active clotting time with a median of 134 s (n = 13, range 91-206 s). Haematological profiles post envenomation revealed anaemia (6/6) and spherocytosis (5/5), which resolved without the use of corticosteroids. Pre-TBAV, median RBBS venom antigen concentration was 22.6 ng/mL (n = 15, range 2-128) in serum and 58 ng/mL (range 1-452) in urine; RBBS venom antigen was undetectable in serum post-TBAV in all patients. CONCLUSION: Some RBBS envenomed dogs required, critical care including mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, additional antivenom and prolonged hospitalisation. TBAV was effective with excellent prognosis despite stated specificity for tiger and brown snake. SN - 1751-0813 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32390184/Red_bellied_black_snake__Pseudechis_porphyriacus__envenomation_in_17_dogs:_clinical_signs_coagulation_changes_haematological_abnormalities_venom_antigen_levels_and_outcomes_following_treatment_with_a_tiger_brown_snake_antivenom_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/avj.12953 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -