Targeting the Linear Ubiquitin Assembly Complex to Modulate the Host Response and Improve Influenza A Virus Induced Lung Injury.Arch Bronconeumol. 2020 09; 56(9):586-591.AB
Influenza virus infection is characterized by symptoms ranging from mild congestion and body aches to severe pulmonary edema and respiratory failure. While the majority of those exposed have minor symptoms and recover with little morbidity, an estimated 500,000 people succumb to IAV-related complications each year worldwide. In these severe cases, an exaggerated inflammatory response, known as "cytokine storm", occurs which results in damage to the respiratory epithelial barrier and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Data from retrospective human studies as well as experimental animal models of influenza virus infection highlight the fine line between an excessive and an inadequate immune response, where the host response must balance viral clearance with exuberant inflammation. Current pharmacological modulators of inflammation, including corticosteroids and statins, have not been successful in improving outcomes during influenza virus infection. We have reported that the amplitude of the inflammatory response is regulated by Linear Ubiquitin Assembly Complex (LUBAC) activity and that dampening of LUBAC activity is protective during severe influenza virus infection. Therapeutic modulation of LUBAC activity may be crucial to improve outcomes during severe influenza virus infection, as it functions as a molecular rheostat of the host response. Here we review the evidence for modulating inflammation to ameliorate influenza virus infection-induced lung injury, data on current anti-inflammatory strategies, and potential new avenues to target viral inflammation and improve outcomes.