Kinetic estimation of solid state transition during isothermal and grinding processes among efavirenz polymorphs.Heliyon. 2020 May; 6(5):e03876.H
Investigation into the solid-state transition among drug polymorphs has been more intense lately. Many factors induce the transformation of polymorphs during manufacturing processes. Efavirenz (EFV), an AIDS therapy drug, has more than 23 polymorphs, but very little information has been reported on them. This study aimed to perform a characterisation of EFV polymorph properties and to predict the kinetics and mechanism of the polymorphic transformation of EFV during manufacturing processes. The bimorphism study was conducted by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) thermal analysis. The phase transition kinetics of the polymorphs was monitored by X-ray powder diffraction and the quantification of concomitant polymorphs was examined using Rietveld refinement with MAUD ver. 2.7 as a software aid. To predict the solid-state transition, correlation coefficients of solid-state kinetic models were fitted to the experimental data. The results show that Form I and Form II of EFV were thermodynamically shown to be monotropy related. By fitting the experimental data, it was found that isothermal treatment had the best model fit with the phase boundary reaction in the two-dimensional model (G2). Accordingly, by employing mechanical treatment (grinding), it was predicted that the transition mechanism is a second-ordered reaction (R2). The activation energy of the transition during isothermal treatment calculated by the Arrhenius plot was found to be 23.051 kJ mol-1; the half-lif of Form II at ambient temperature was 428.05 min (~7.1 h).