Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) and Uterine Histological Characteristics.Dev Reprod. 2020 Mar; 24(1):1-17.DR
Phthalates have a long industrial history. It is suspected that phthalates and their metabolites have detrimental effects on reproduction and development. They are well-known for their anti-androgenic effects. Several studies have indicated that phthalates and their metabolites are reprotoxic in males and endocrine disruptors. Reproduction and embryogenesis occur in the uterus of female eutherian mammals. A horizontal analytical method is preferred to elucidate the toxic effects of phthalates on human reproduction. Nevertheless, there are vast numbers of known phthalates and not all of their modes of action have been clarified. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used plasticizer and has been the subject of numerous toxicological studies. However, few of these have reported on the toxic effects of DEHP, its metabolites, other phthalates, or mixtures on female reproduction. Acute and high doses of DEHP adversely affect uterine histology. Recently, it was disclosed that chronic exposures to low doses of DEHP have endocrine disruption efficacy. DEHP induces various cellular responses including modulation of the expression and regulation of steroid hormone receptors and transcription and paracrine factors. Uteri do not respond uniformly to DEHP exposure. The phenotypic manifestations and effects on fertility in response to DEHP and its metabolites may vary with species, developmental stage, and generation. Hence, DEHP exposure may histological alter the uterus and induce endometriosis, endometriosis, hyperplasia, myoma, and developmental and reproductive toxicity.