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COVID-19: A Worldwide, Zoonotic, Pandemic Outbreak.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2020 Aug; 26(S2):56-64.AT

Abstract

Context

An outbreak of a novel, zoonotic coronavirus occurred in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China and has now affected almost the entire world, with the maximum confirmed cases being 1 521 252 as of April 10, 2020. The WHO named this coronavirus 2019-nCoV, with COVID-19 being the name for diseases allied with it.

Objective

The study intended to examine the features and characteristics of existing human coronaviruses and identify their resemblance to the newly identified 2019-nCoV.

Design

The research team performed a literature review, searching relevant literature databases. We searched four databases, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and CNKI (Chinese Database), to identify studies reporting COVID-19. Articles published on or before April 10, 2020 were eligible for inclusion. We used the following search terms: "Coronavirus" or "2019-nCoV" or "COVID-19" or "SARS-CoV" or "MERS-CoV" or "Bat SARS-CoV" or "ACE2 receptor".

Setting

This study was take place in School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, India.

Results

The undistinguishable similarity of the genomic sequences of Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and Bat SARS-CoV-bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21-to nCoV-2019 has facilitated the process of identifying primary treatment measures. Researchers are presuming the existence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor binding in nCoV-2019, as in SARS-CoV. Researchers have been examining human-to-human transmission, the possibility of an intermediate host between bats and humans, and the existence of asymptomatic cases. An incubation period of 0 to 14 days has been reported, with acute to chronic symptoms being cough, nasal congestion, high fever, dyspnea, pneumonia, invasive lesions in both lungs, respiratory failure, and even death, including in pediatric cases. Mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, repurposing of antivirals, and plasma infusion have proven to be somewhat effective. Several countries have started clinical trials to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of some drugs, but the ability to vaccinate people with existing or new molecules will require time. Previously learned lessons from SARS and MERS have led some areas to be well equipped in terms of the ability to take speedy action.

Conclusions

First-level treatments include repurposing antivirals and antimalarials, and plasma infusion should help, but development of existing or new molecules into vaccines will take time. The unpredictable trajectory of this outbreak demands careful surveillance to monitor the situation, draw strategies, implement control measures, and create proper ethical laws and medical guidelines.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32412918

Citation

Khan, Tahseen, et al. "COVID-19: a Worldwide, Zoonotic, Pandemic Outbreak." Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, vol. 26, no. S2, 2020, pp. 56-64.
Khan T, Agnihotri K, Tripathi A, et al. COVID-19: A Worldwide, Zoonotic, Pandemic Outbreak. Altern Ther Health Med. 2020;26(S2):56-64.
Khan, T., Agnihotri, K., Tripathi, A., Mukherjee, S., Agnihotri, N., & Gupta, G. (2020). COVID-19: A Worldwide, Zoonotic, Pandemic Outbreak. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 26(S2), 56-64.
Khan T, et al. COVID-19: a Worldwide, Zoonotic, Pandemic Outbreak. Altern Ther Health Med. 2020;26(S2):56-64. PubMed PMID: 32412918.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - COVID-19: A Worldwide, Zoonotic, Pandemic Outbreak. AU - Khan,Tahseen, AU - Agnihotri,Kartikeya, AU - Tripathi,Aditi, AU - Mukherjee,Suneet, AU - Agnihotri,Namita, AU - Gupta,Gaurav, PY - 2020/5/16/pubmed PY - 2020/9/17/medline PY - 2020/5/16/entrez SP - 56 EP - 64 JF - Alternative therapies in health and medicine JO - Altern Ther Health Med VL - 26 IS - S2 N2 - Context: An outbreak of a novel, zoonotic coronavirus occurred in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China and has now affected almost the entire world, with the maximum confirmed cases being 1 521 252 as of April 10, 2020. The WHO named this coronavirus 2019-nCoV, with COVID-19 being the name for diseases allied with it. Objective: The study intended to examine the features and characteristics of existing human coronaviruses and identify their resemblance to the newly identified 2019-nCoV. Design: The research team performed a literature review, searching relevant literature databases. We searched four databases, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and CNKI (Chinese Database), to identify studies reporting COVID-19. Articles published on or before April 10, 2020 were eligible for inclusion. We used the following search terms: "Coronavirus" or "2019-nCoV" or "COVID-19" or "SARS-CoV" or "MERS-CoV" or "Bat SARS-CoV" or "ACE2 receptor". Setting: This study was take place in School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, India. Results: The undistinguishable similarity of the genomic sequences of Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and Bat SARS-CoV-bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21-to nCoV-2019 has facilitated the process of identifying primary treatment measures. Researchers are presuming the existence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor binding in nCoV-2019, as in SARS-CoV. Researchers have been examining human-to-human transmission, the possibility of an intermediate host between bats and humans, and the existence of asymptomatic cases. An incubation period of 0 to 14 days has been reported, with acute to chronic symptoms being cough, nasal congestion, high fever, dyspnea, pneumonia, invasive lesions in both lungs, respiratory failure, and even death, including in pediatric cases. Mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, repurposing of antivirals, and plasma infusion have proven to be somewhat effective. Several countries have started clinical trials to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of some drugs, but the ability to vaccinate people with existing or new molecules will require time. Previously learned lessons from SARS and MERS have led some areas to be well equipped in terms of the ability to take speedy action. Conclusions: First-level treatments include repurposing antivirals and antimalarials, and plasma infusion should help, but development of existing or new molecules into vaccines will take time. The unpredictable trajectory of this outbreak demands careful surveillance to monitor the situation, draw strategies, implement control measures, and create proper ethical laws and medical guidelines. SN - 1078-6791 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32412918/COVID_19:_A_Worldwide_Zoonotic_Pandemic_Outbreak_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/animaldiseasesandyourhealth.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -