Association between maternal exposure to PM10 and polydactyly and syndactyly: A population-based case-control study in Liaoning province, China.Environ Res. 2020 Aug; 187:109643.ER
The number of studies on air pollution with birth defects as the primary outcome has increased dramatically over the past two decades, but the potential role of specific air pollutants in congenital limb anomalies remains unclear.
To evaluate associations between preconception and first-trimester PM10 exposure and polydactyly and syndactyly in a population-based case-control study.
Polydactyly cases (n = 2605), syndactyly cases (n = 595), and controls without any birth defects (n = 7950) born between 2010 and 2015 were selected from the Maternal and Child Health Certificate Registry of Liaoning Province. The monthly mean PM10 concentrations were obtained from 75 air monitoring stations, and the exposure assessment was based on the mean concentration of all stations in mother's residential city. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
PM10 exposure was positively associated with the risks of polydactyly (preconception: aORT3 vs. T1 = 1.95, 95% CI 1.56-2.45, aOR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.10 [per 10-μg/m3 increment]; first-trimester: aORT3 vs. T1 = 2.51, 95% CI 2.00-3.15) and syndactyly (preconception: aORT3 vs. T1 = 2.86, 95% CI 1.98-4.13, aOR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20 [per 10-μg/m3 increment]; first-trimester: aORT3 vs. T1 = 3.10, 95% CI 2.11-4.56). Analyses based on single month exposure windows basically showed similar positive associations. Additionally, these findings were robust in sensitivity analyses and broadly consistent across subgroups.
Our study suggest that preconception and first-trimester PM10 exposures are related to increased risks of polydactyly and syndactyly.