Acute inspiratory muscle exercise effect on glucose levels, glucose variability and autonomic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: A crossover randomized trial.Auton Neurosci. 2020 07; 226:102669.AN
Inspiratory muscle exercise (IME) can be an alternative to conventional exercise. We aimed to evaluate the effect of IME on glucose, glucose variability, and autonomic cardiovascular control in type 2 diabetes. Fourteen diabetic subjects were randomly assigned to IME with 2% maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) or 60% PImax wearing a continuous glucose monitoring system for three days. Glucose variability [glucose variance (VAR), glucose coefficient of variation (CV%), glucose standard deviation (SD), and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE)] were evaluated. Glucose reduction was observed in 5 min (60% of PImax 33.2% and 2% of PImax 32.0%), 60 min (60% of PImax 29.6% and 2% of PImax 31.4%) and 120 min (60% of PImax 21.4% and 2% of PImax 24.0%) after IME (vs.1 h before the exercise), with no difference between loads. This reduction in glucose levels was observed in all moments of the IME protocol. Glucose variability was reduced after 12 h and 18 h of the IME (ΔCV: P < 0.001, ΔSD: P < 0.001 and ΔVAR: P < 0.001) for both loads. No difference was found in MAGE (P = 0.594) after IME. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate rose during the exercise session with 60% of PImax. Although sufficiently strong to induce cardiovascular changes, an inspiratory muscle exercise session with 60% of PImax in subjects with type 2 diabetes has failed to induce any significant improvement in glucose, glucose variability and autonomic control, compared to the 2% Plmax exercise session.