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Anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activity of betaine on formalin- and writhing tests induced pain in mice.
Behav Brain Res. 2020 Jul 15; 390:112699.BB

Abstract

Pain is a physiological response which is mediated via the central and peripheral nervous system. Betaine, is a methyl glycine derivative and a commonly used nutrient supplement. The main purpose of the current paper is to determine the possible anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activity and sedative effect of betaine in mice. Adult male albino mice were divided into two categories, formalin and writhing tests. In the formalin test, mice were injected with betaine (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg). For co-injections mice received betaine (30 mg/kg) + naloxone (2 mg/kg) or atropine (1 mg/kg), chlorpheniramine (20 mg/kg), flumazenil (5 mg/kg), cimetidine (12.5 mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (4 mg/kg). Then the formalin test was done and paw licking time was determined. In the writhing test, injections were the same but the animals were injected with acetic acid (0.6 %) and the percentage of writhing inhibition was recorded. At the end of the study, blood antioxidant levels were determined. According to the results, betaine reduced the pain response in a dose-dependent manner. Co-administration of the naloxone + betaine or flumazenil + betaine significantly decreased the anti-nociceptive effect of betaine on the licking and biting time of the injected paw and inhibited the number of writhing movements. Betaine decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and improved superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in formalin receiving mice. No adverse locomotion and sedation effect were observed in betaine-treated mice. These findings suggest that betaine has anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activity in mice, and its anti-nociceptive role interacts with opioidergic and GABA receptors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Section of Physiology, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: s.hassanpour@srbiau.ac.ir.Section of Physiology, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.Section of Physiology, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32417277

Citation

Hassanpour, Shahin, et al. "Anti-nociceptive and Antioxidant Activity of Betaine On Formalin- and Writhing Tests Induced Pain in Mice." Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 390, 2020, p. 112699.
Hassanpour S, Rezaei H, Razavi SM. Anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activity of betaine on formalin- and writhing tests induced pain in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2020;390:112699.
Hassanpour, S., Rezaei, H., & Razavi, S. M. (2020). Anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activity of betaine on formalin- and writhing tests induced pain in mice. Behavioural Brain Research, 390, 112699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112699
Hassanpour S, Rezaei H, Razavi SM. Anti-nociceptive and Antioxidant Activity of Betaine On Formalin- and Writhing Tests Induced Pain in Mice. Behav Brain Res. 2020 Jul 15;390:112699. PubMed PMID: 32417277.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activity of betaine on formalin- and writhing tests induced pain in mice. AU - Hassanpour,Shahin, AU - Rezaei,Hadis, AU - Razavi,Seyyed Mojtaba, Y1 - 2020/05/15/ PY - 2020/03/09/received PY - 2020/05/07/revised PY - 2020/05/07/accepted PY - 2020/5/18/pubmed PY - 2020/5/18/medline PY - 2020/5/18/entrez KW - Anti-nociceptive KW - Antioxidants KW - Betaine KW - Formalin test KW - GABAergic KW - Mice KW - Opioidergic KW - Writhing test SP - 112699 EP - 112699 JF - Behavioural brain research JO - Behav. Brain Res. VL - 390 N2 - Pain is a physiological response which is mediated via the central and peripheral nervous system. Betaine, is a methyl glycine derivative and a commonly used nutrient supplement. The main purpose of the current paper is to determine the possible anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activity and sedative effect of betaine in mice. Adult male albino mice were divided into two categories, formalin and writhing tests. In the formalin test, mice were injected with betaine (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg). For co-injections mice received betaine (30 mg/kg) + naloxone (2 mg/kg) or atropine (1 mg/kg), chlorpheniramine (20 mg/kg), flumazenil (5 mg/kg), cimetidine (12.5 mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (4 mg/kg). Then the formalin test was done and paw licking time was determined. In the writhing test, injections were the same but the animals were injected with acetic acid (0.6 %) and the percentage of writhing inhibition was recorded. At the end of the study, blood antioxidant levels were determined. According to the results, betaine reduced the pain response in a dose-dependent manner. Co-administration of the naloxone + betaine or flumazenil + betaine significantly decreased the anti-nociceptive effect of betaine on the licking and biting time of the injected paw and inhibited the number of writhing movements. Betaine decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and improved superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in formalin receiving mice. No adverse locomotion and sedation effect were observed in betaine-treated mice. These findings suggest that betaine has anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activity in mice, and its anti-nociceptive role interacts with opioidergic and GABA receptors. SN - 1872-7549 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32417277/Anti-nociceptive_and_antioxidant_activity_of_betaine_on_formalin-_and_writhing_tests_induced_pain_in_mice L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166-4328(20)30398-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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