Anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activity of betaine on formalin- and writhing tests induced pain in mice.Behav Brain Res. 2020 Jul 15; 390:112699.BB
Pain is a physiological response which is mediated via the central and peripheral nervous system. Betaine, is a methyl glycine derivative and a commonly used nutrient supplement. The main purpose of the current paper is to determine the possible anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activity and sedative effect of betaine in mice. Adult male albino mice were divided into two categories, formalin and writhing tests. In the formalin test, mice were injected with betaine (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg). For co-injections mice received betaine (30 mg/kg) + naloxone (2 mg/kg) or atropine (1 mg/kg), chlorpheniramine (20 mg/kg), flumazenil (5 mg/kg), cimetidine (12.5 mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (4 mg/kg). Then the formalin test was done and paw licking time was determined. In the writhing test, injections were the same but the animals were injected with acetic acid (0.6 %) and the percentage of writhing inhibition was recorded. At the end of the study, blood antioxidant levels were determined. According to the results, betaine reduced the pain response in a dose-dependent manner. Co-administration of the naloxone + betaine or flumazenil + betaine significantly decreased the anti-nociceptive effect of betaine on the licking and biting time of the injected paw and inhibited the number of writhing movements. Betaine decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and improved superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in formalin receiving mice. No adverse locomotion and sedation effect were observed in betaine-treated mice. These findings suggest that betaine has anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activity in mice, and its anti-nociceptive role interacts with opioidergic and GABA receptors.