Hyperammonemia by Ureaplasma urealyticum Pneumonia after Lung Transplantation.Respir Med Case Rep. 2020; 30:101080.RM
Ureaplasma urealyticum is a commensal of the female genital tract and can be detected as a pathogen in urethritis and vaginitis. Its importance as a respiratory pathogen beyond the field of neonatology remains controversial. We report a case of Ureaplasma-pneumonia in a recently lung-transplanted patient, with hyperammonemic syndrome. The 51-year-old lung-transplanted female was admitted to the intensive care unit with new-onset reduction of her mental state due to hyperammonemia. A diagnostic bronchoscopy showed purulent bronchitis and multiple superficial ulcerations of the bronchial mucosa. The DNA-PCR from bronchoalveolar lavage confirmed the presence of Ureaplasma urealyticum in low concentration (about 5 * 104 copies/ml), which was interpreted as evidence of infection and treated with Doxycycline intravenously. Ureaplasma was also identified by DNA-PCR in the biopsy specimens of the inflammatory enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Bilateral pleural effusions were found to be transudative and culturally sterile. Ureaplasma-pneumonia can cause fatal hyperammonemia in lung-transplant patients and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of every unclear hyperammonemia with normal liver function. The early identification and treatment of the infection leads to clinical and biochemical resolution.