Immunomorphological Features of the Placenta in Allogeneic Pregnancy as the Background for the Development of Obstetric Complications.Pathobiology. 2020; 87(4):232-243.P
To study the structural and immunohistochemical features of placentas in women after assisted reproductive technology (ART) with allogeneic eggs (oocyte donation and surrogate motherhood).
The study involved 89 women whose pregnancy occurred as a result of in vitro fertilization (IVF) with a donor egg in a surrogate motherhood program (IVF-SM, n = 47 patients) or oocyte donation (IVF-DO, n = 42). The comparison group consisted of 21 patients in whom pregnancy occurred as a result of IVF with their own egg (IVF-OE). A clinical and anamnestic analysis of the pregnant women was carried out. Morphological and immunohistochemical studies were performed on placental material. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD8, CD56, CD138, and CD25/CD4 markers indicating the processes of impaired tolerance in placenta was carried out. -Results: We observed a predominance of women aged >40 (range 42.7-3.91) years with a burdened somatic and obstetric-gynecological history and a high incidence of hypertensive pregnancy complications, such as gestational arterial hypertension (27.4%) and preeclampsia (28.5%), in the IVF-DO group. The IVF-SM group included mainly somatically healthy women aged <30 (29.4-3.19) years with a high risk of termination of pregnancy in the third trimester (49.6%) and premature birth (21.6%). Placentas taken from women after allogeneic pregnancy had pronounced signs of immune alteration, such as chronic histiocytic intervillositis, lymphoplasmacytic deciduitis, chronic chorioamnionitis, chronic villitis, and perivillous fibrinoid with lymphocytes (p [F] < 0.05). Immunohistochemical study of the placentas showed accumulation of CD138+ plasma cells, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and uterine natural killer cells, and a decrease in the number of CD25/CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the structures of the uteroplacental region (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05).
Placentas after IVF with oocyte donation and surrogate motherhood programs are characterized by similar changes, associated with the development of chronic inflammation in the structures of the placenta and immunohistochemical signs of impaired immunological tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface. The data we obtained allow us to classify pregnancies under surrogate motherhood programs as a risk factor for the development of pregnancy complications with immune pathogenesis.