A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19.Cas Lek Cesk. 2020 Spring; 159(2):55-66.CL
By the end of 2019 the first cases of severe pneumonia of unknown origin were reported in Wuhan, China. The causative agent was identified as a novel b-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the disease was named COVID-19. Since the beginning of 2020, the infection has spread worldwide, which led the WHO to declare COVID-19 a public health emergency of international concern and to characterize the current situation as a pandemic. The transmission occurs mainly via respiratory droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 days. Most cases are mild, but some patients develop severe pneumonia with acute respiratory distress, septic shock and multi-organ failure. The most common symptoms include fever, dry cough, myalgia and shortness of breath. Characteristic laboratory findings are normal white blood cell count or mild leukopenia, marked lymphopenia, in severe cases elevated CRP, procalcitonin, LDH, and D-dimer are commonly found. Typical imaging findings include multifocal peripherally distributed ground-glass opacities or consolidations, interlobular septal thickening, crazy paving appearance and cystic changes. The overall case fatality rate is estimated to range from 1 to 3 %, however, it is dependent on age and underlying medical comorbidities. Current potential treatment options include hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and convalescent plasma.