Suicidal ideation, psychopathology and associated factors among HIV-infected adults in Indonesia.BMC Psychiatry. 2020 May 24; 20(1):255.BP
Suicidal behavior is a prevalent psychiatric emergency in HIV-infected adults. Detection of suicidal ideation is important in planning early psychiatric intervention and optimizing HIV/AIDS management. Characterization of suicidal ideation among HIV-infected adults is crucial; however, practically there is no data in Indonesia, the country with the second largest burden of HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia. This study aims to identify suicidal ideation and analyze the associated psychopathology and determining factors among HIV-infected adults in Indonesia.
An observational cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-infected adults aged 18-65 years old receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Measurement using Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) was performed to assess the existing psychopathology. Firth's penalized logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation.
A total of 86 subjects were recruited. Most subjects were male (65.1%), median age was 35 years, and median latest CD4 count was 463 cells/μl. Lifetime suicidal ideation was identified in 20 subjects (23.3%). Mean SCL-90 T-score for depressive and anxiety symptoms were both significantly higher among subjects with suicidal ideation (M = 60.75, SD = 12.0, p = 0.000 and M = 57.9, SD = 2.8, p = 0.001, respectively) compared to those without. Bivariate analyses showed that lifetime suicidal ideation was associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, non-marital status, CD4 count < 500 cells/μl, and efavirenz use. Multivariate analysis identified that a single-point increase in SCL-90 depression symptoms score (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 4.5-123.6, p = 0.000) and efavirenz use (AOR 5.00, 95% CI 1.02-24.6, p = 0.048) were significant independent factors related to suicidal ideation.
Suicidal ideation is commonly found among Indonesian HIV-infected adults on ART. Depressive symptoms and efavirenz use are independent factors related to the presence of suicidal ideation. Thus, early screening of psychopathology as well as substitution of efavirenz with other ART regiment are recommended to prevent suicide and improve HIV/AIDS management outcome.