A Comprehensive Whole-Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug-Gene Interaction Model of Metformin and Cimetidine in Healthy Adults and Renally Impaired Individuals.Clin Pharmacokinet. 2020 May 25 [Online ahead of print]CP
Metformin is a widely prescribed antidiabetic BCS Class III drug (low permeability) that depends on active transport for its absorption and disposition. It is recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration as a clinical substrate of organic cation transporter 2/multidrug and toxin extrusion protein for drug-drug interaction studies. Cimetidine is a potent organic cation transporter 2/multidrug and toxin extrusion protein inhibitor.
The objective of this study was to provide mechanistic whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic models of metformin and cimetidine, built and evaluated to describe the metformin-SLC22A2 808G>T drug-gene interaction, the cimetidine-metformin drug-drug interaction, and the impact of renal impairment on metformin exposure.
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed in PK-Sim® (version 8.0). Thirty-nine clinical studies (dosing range 0.001-2550 mg), providing metformin plasma and urine data, positron emission tomography measurements of tissue concentrations, studies in organic cation transporter 2 polymorphic volunteers, drug-drug interaction studies with cimetidine, and data from patients in different stages of chronic kidney disease, were used to develop the metformin model. Twenty-seven clinical studies (dosing range 100-800 mg), reporting cimetidine plasma and urine concentrations, were used for the cimetidine model development.
The established physiologically based pharmacokinetic models adequately describe the available clinical data, including the investigated drug-gene interaction, drug-drug interaction, and drug-drug-gene interaction studies, as well as the metformin exposure during renal impairment. All modeled drug-drug interaction area under the curve and maximum concentration ratios are within 1.5-fold of the observed ratios. The clinical data of renally impaired patients shows the expected increase in metformin exposure with declining kidney function, but also indicates counter-regulatory mechanisms in severe renal disease; these mechanisms were implemented into the model based on findings in preclinical species.
Whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic models of metformin and cimetidine were built and qualified for the prediction of metformin pharmacokinetics during drug-gene interaction, drug-drug interaction, and different stages of renal disease. The model files will be freely available in the Open Systems Pharmacology model repository. Current guidelines for metformin treatment of renally impaired patients should be reviewed to avoid overdosing in CKD3 and to allow metformin therapy of CKD4 patients.