Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions for bioactive components from coffee leaves using the Taguchi design and response surface methodology.J Food Sci. 2020 Jun; 85(6):1742-1751.JF
Coffee leaves contain various bioactive compounds that are beneficial for human health. However, there are very limited researches related to the extraction of the bioactive phytochemicals from coffee leaves. In the present study, the extraction conditions for bioactive components from coffee leaves were optimized using Taguchi design and response surface methodology (RSM). Taguchi design was used to screen significant factors that affected the yield of phytochemicals including trigonelline, caffeine, chlorogenic acids, mangiferin, and rutin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Sequentially, a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the extraction conditions. Three factors including Liquid-to-solid (L:S) ratio, ethanol concentration, and extraction temperature that significantly affected most of the phytochemical yields and antioxidant activity were selected from the six variables using Taguchi design. The optimal extraction conditions obtained from RSM were 30.3:1 L:S ratio, 54.5% ethanol, and 80 °C when simultaneously considered four responses, including TPC, the yields of mangiferin and 5-CQA and DPPH scavenging capacity. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental results for the above four responses were 62.1 mg gallic acid/g, 4.1 mg/g, 11.4 mg/g, and 356.9 µmol Trolox/g, respectively, which were close to the predicted values. About 97% of phytochemicals can be extracted in the first two times of extraction. In conclusion, the combination of Taguchi design and response surface methodology can be successfully used to screen and optimize the significant factors that affected the bioactive components extracted from coffee leaves. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Coffee leaves, the byproducts of coffee plants, are considered no- or low-value although it has a long history for using them as tea-like beverage and ethnomedicine by locals in the coffee plant growing countries. Bioactive components extracted from coffee leaves can be used as ingredients in functional beverages, functional food, and natural health products. These applications will add values to coffee leaves as well as increase the incomes of coffee farmers and workers.